Revision summary help for the 9-1 Edexcel GCSE Combined Science 2nd biology exam paper 2 - learning objectives

Edexcel GCSE Grade 9-1 Combined Science 1SC0 Paper 2 Biology 2 - Edexcel Grade 9-1 GCSE Combined Science biology Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology", Topic 6 "Plant structures and their functions", Topic 7 "Animal coordination, control and homeostasis", Topic 8 "Exchange and transport in animals", Topic 9 "Ecosystems and material cycles"

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE Combined Science 1st biology paper 1

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE BIOLOGY 1 paper 1

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE BIOLOGY 2 paper 2

 For ALL other exam papers, use and bookmark the link below

INDEX for all links * PAST PAPERS

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY THE FOLLOWING POINTS before using my Edexcel 9-1 GCSE science pages

  1. ALL my unofficial GCSE (Grade 9-1) revision help summaries are based on the NEW 2016 official Edexcel (Grade 9-1) GCSE BIOLOGY/combined science biology specifications.

  2. Make sure you know whether you are doing separate science Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 BIOLOGY OR Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science biology.

  3. Also, make sure you know whether you are entered for a higher tier (HT) or a foundation tier (FT) Edexcel GCSE science-biology course, so watch out for the (HT only) 'markers'.

  4. I hope my revision pages help as you get to know my website, its very big and not always easy to navigate, but it is no substitute for making good lesson notes, trying your best on homework questions, studying your textbook, doing past papers of Edexcel GCSE combined science/biology for exam question practice and, above all, attentive to your teacher's teaching!

  5. I know from feedback that my gcse science summary revision pages have proved useful but they do not guarantee a high grade, that all depends on you and the factors mentioned in point 4. above. Please note that my GCSE science revision pages are designed to be used for online convenience, so, beware, printouts could be quite long!
  6. Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science Biology 2 PAST PAPERS & specimen practice paper questions

  7. 'Doc b's chemistry' is a big website so the Google [SEARCH] box at the bottom of each index or revision notes page can be VERY USEFUL - sometimes its better than the indexes for finding things!



Syllabus-specification CONTENT INDEX of revision summary notes

 Note that a B after the learning objective means Edexcel GCSE biology only, NOT for Combined Science biology

Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 1 Biology 1 (separate page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 Key concepts in biology  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 2 Cells and control  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 3 Genetics  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 4 Natural selection and genetic modification  (Edexcel GCSE Comb. Sci. Biology paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 5 Health, disease and development of medicines  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)


Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 2 Biology 2 (this page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 Key concepts in biology  (Edexcel Combined Science Biology 2 paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 6 Plant structures and their functions  (Edexcel Combined Science Biology 2 paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 7 Animal coordination, control and homeostasis  (Edexcel Combined Science Biology 2)

SUMMARY Topic 8 Exchange and transport in animals  (Edexcel Combined Science Biology 2 paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 9 Ecosystems and material cycles  (Edexcel Combined Science biology 2 Paper 2)


SUBJECT CONTENT of the syllabus-specification: (HT only) means higher tier only (NOT FT foundation tier biology)

TOPICS for Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Paper 2 Biology 2

Note: a B after the learning objective number indicates it is for Edexcel GCSE Biology ONLY, NOT for Combined Science


Topic 1 Key concepts in biology

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology")



Topic 1 Key concepts in biology  (Topic 1 content is common to all biology papers)

(Topic 1 Overarching concepts in biology)

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology")

You should be able to ....

1.1 Be able to explain how the sub-cellular structures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are related to their functions, including:

(a) animal cells - nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes

(b) plant cells - nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuole and ribosomes

(c) bacteria - chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, cell membrane, ribosomes and flagella.

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function

1.2 Be able to describe how specialised cells are adapted to their function, including:

(a) sperm cells acrosome, haploid nucleus, mitochondria and tail

(b) egg cells nutrients in the cytoplasm, haploid nucleus and changes in the cell membrane after fertilisation

(c) ciliated epithelial cells

1.3 Be able to explain how changes in microscope technology, including electron microscopy, have enabled us to see cell structures with more clarity and detail than in the past

1.4 Demonstrate an understanding of size and scale in relation to microscopy, including magnification calculations.

1.5 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between quantitative units in relation to cells, including:

a milli (10-3),  micro (10-6),  nano (10-9),  pico (10-12)

(HT only) Do calculations with numbers written in standard form

1.6 Core Practical: You should have investigated biological specimens using microscopes, including magnification calculations and labelled scientific drawings from observations.

1.7 Be able to explain the mechanism of enzyme action including the active site and enzyme specificity

1.8 Be able to explain how enzymes can be denatured due to changes in the shape of the active site

1.9 Be able to explain the effects of temperature, substrate concentration and pH on enzyme.

1.10 Core Practical: You should have investigated the effect of pH on enzyme activity

1.11 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of rate calculations for enzyme activity

1.12 Be able to explain the importance of enzymes as biological catalysts in the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and their breakdown into sugars, amino acids and fatty acids and glycerol

1.15 Be able to explain how substances are transported by diffusion, osmosis and active transport

1.16 Core practical: You should have investigated osmosis in potatoes

1.17 Be able to calculate percentage gain and loss of mass in osmosis

Practicals you may have encountered and should revise too:

Investigating the effect of different concentrations of digestive enzymes, using and evaluating models of the alimentary canal.

Investigating the effect of temperatures and concentration on enzyme activity.

Investigating plant and animal cells with a light microscope.

Investigating the effect of concentration on rate of diffusion.


The other TOPICS for Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology PAPER 2

Topic 6 Plant structures and their functions

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 6 "Plant structures and their functions")



Topic 6 Plant structures and their functions

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 6 "Plant structures and their functions")

You should be able to ....

6.1 Be able to describe photosynthetic organisms as the main producers of food and therefore biomass

6.2 Be able to describe photosynthesis in plants and algae as an endothermic reaction that uses light energy to react carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen

6.3 Be able to explain the effect of temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration as limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis

6.4 (HT only) Be able to explain the interactions of temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration in limiting the rate of photosynthesis

6.5 Revise investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis

6.6 (HT only) Be able to explain how the rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to light intensity and inversely proportional to the distance from a light source, including the use of the inverse square law calculation

 Photosynthesis, importance explained, limiting factors affecting rate

6.7 Be able to explain how the structure of the root hair cells is adapted to absorb water and mineral ions

6.8 Be able to explain how the structures of the xylem and phloem are adapted to their function in the plant, including:

(a) lignified dead cells in xylem transporting water and minerals through the plant

(b) living cells in phloem using energy to transport sucrose around the plant

6.9 Be able to describe how water and mineral ions are transported through the plant by transpiration, including the structure and function of the stomata

6.10 Be able to describe how sucrose is transported around the plant by translocation

6.12 Be able to explain the effect of environmental factors on the rate of water uptake by a plant, to include light intensity, air movement and temperature

6.13 Demonstrate an understanding of rate calculations for transpiration

Suggested practicals to revise too:

Investigate the effect of pollutants on plant germination and plant growth.

Investigate the effect of light and/or gravity on plant growth.

Investigate how factors, including the effect of light intensity, CO2 concentration or temperature, affect the rate of photosynthesis.

Investigate how the structure of the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis.

Investigate how the loss of water vapour from leaves drives transpiration.

Investigate the importance of photoperiodicity in plants.


Topic 7  Animal coordination, control and homeostasis

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 7 "Animal coordination, control and homeostasis")



Topic 7 Animal coordination, control and homeostasis 

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 7 "Animal coordination, control and homeostasis")

You should be able to ....

7.1 Be able to describe where hormones are produced and how they are transported from endocrine glands to their target organs including the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes

7.2 (HT only) Be able to explain that adrenalin is produced by the adrenal glands to prepare the body for fight or flight, including:

(a) increased heart rate

(b) increased blood pressure

(c) increased blood flow to the muscles

(d) raised blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to change glycogen into glucose

7.3 (HT only) Be able to explain how thyroxine controls metabolic rate as an example of negative feedback, including:

(a) low levels of thyroxine stimulates production of TRH in hypothalamus

(b) this causes release of TSH from the pituitary gland

(c) TSH acts on the thyroid to produce thyroxine

(d) when thyroxine levels are normal thyroxine inhibits the release of TRH and the production of TSH

7.4 Be able to describe the stages of the menstrual cycle, including the roles of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, in the control of the menstrual cycle.

7.5 (HT only) Be able to explain the interactions of oestrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH in the control of the menstrual cycle, including the repair and maintenance of the uterus wall, ovulation and menstruation

7.6 Be able to explain how hormonal contraception influences the menstrual cycle and prevents pregnancy

7.7 Be able to compare and evaluate hormonal and barrier methods of contraception

7.8 (HT only) Be able to explain the use of hormones in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) including IVF and clomifene therapy

7.9 Be able to explain the importance of maintaining a constant internal environment in response to internal and external change

7.13 Be able to explain how blood glucose concentration is regulated by the hormone insulin

7.14 (HT only) Be able to explain how blood glucose concentration is regulated by glucagon

7.15 Be able to explain the cause of type 1 diabetes and how it is controlled

7.16 Be able to explain the cause of type 2 diabetes and how it is controlled

7.17 Evaluate the correlation between body mass and type 2 diabetes including waist : hip ratio calculations and BMI using the BMI equation:

BMI = weight (kg) [height (m)]2

Practical done - investigation of the presence of sugar in simulated urine/body fluids.


Topic 8 Exchange and transport in animals

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 8 "Exchange and transport in animals")



Topic 8 Exchange and transport in animals  

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 8 "Exchange and transport in animals")

You should be able to ....

8.1 Be able to describe the need to transport substances into and out of a range of organisms including oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, dissolved food molecules, mineral ions and urea

8.2 Be able to explain the need for exchange surfaces and a transport system in multicellular organisms including the calculation of surface area : volume ratio (usually with a simple cube model).

8.3 Be able to describe how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange by diffusion between air in the lungs and blood in capillaries

8.6 Be able to explain how the structure of the blood is related to its function:

(a) red blood cells (erythrocytes)

(b) white blood cells (phagocytes and lymphocytes)

(c) plasma

(d) platelets

8.7 Be able to explain how the structure of the blood vessels is related to their function

8.8 Be able to explain how the structure of the heart and circulatory system is related to its function, including the role of the major blood vessels, the valves and the relative thickness of chamber walls

8.9 Be able to describe cellular respiration as an exothermic reaction which occurs continuously in living cells to release energy for metabolic processes, including aerobic and anaerobic respiration

8.10 Be able to compare the process of aerobic respiration with the process of anaerobic respiration

8.11 Investigation into the rate of respiration in living organisms

8.12 Calculate heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output, using the equation:

cardiac output = stroke volume heart rate

Suggested practicals to revise:

Investigation of the effect of glucose concentration on rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

Investigating the short term effects of increase in heart rate and/or breathing rate with exercise.


Topic 9 Ecosystems and material cycles

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 9 "Ecosystems and materials")



Topic 9 Ecosystems and material cycles  

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 2 biology 2, Topic 9 "Ecosystems and materials")

You should be able to ....

9.1 Be able to describe the different levels of organisation from individual organisms, populations, communities, to the whole ecosystem

9.2 Be able to explain how communities can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors, including:

(a) temperature, light, water, pollutants

(b) competition, predation

9.3 Be able to describe the importance of interdependence in a community

9.4 Be able to describe how the survival of some organisms is dependent on other species, including parasitism and mutualism

9.5 Investigate the relationship between organisms and their environment using field work techniques including quadrats and belt transects

9.6 Be able to explain how to determine the number of organisms in a given area using raw data from field-work techniques, including quadrats and belt transects

9.9 Be able to explain the positive and negative human interactions within ecosystems and their impacts on biodiversity, including:

(a) fish farming

(b) introduction of non-indigenous species

(c) eutrophication

9.10 Be able to explain the benefits of maintaining local and global biodiversity including the conservation of animal species and the impact of reforestation

9.12 Be able to describe how different materials cycle through the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem

9.13 Be able to explain the importance of the carbon cycle including the processes involved and the role of microorganisms as decomposers

9.14 Be able to explain the importance of the water cycle including the processes involved and the production of potable water in areas of drought including desalination

9.15 Be able to explain how nitrates are made available for plant uptake including the use of fertilisers, crop rotation and the role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle

Practicals you may have encountered worth revising

Investigating tropic responses.

Investigating how indicator species can be used to assess levels of pollution in water or the atmosphere.

Investigating animal behaviour using choice chambers.

 


PAST PAPERS     (Practice exam question papers for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 2 Biology 2 for questions on Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology", Topic 6 "Plant structures and their functions", Topic 7 "Animal coordination, control and homeostasis", Topic 8 "Exchange and transport in animals", Topic 9 "Ecosystems and material cycles")



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Edexcel GCSE Sciences (Grade 9-1) Level 1/Level 2 specifications syllabuses, specimen papers, past exam papers

Edexcel GCSE (Grade 9-1) Combined Science with biology, chemistry and physics sections

Specifications - syllabuses, past exam papers, specimen practice question papers

(see separate page for Combined Science Biology 1 Papers)

1SC0 syllabus  Edexcel_GCSE_L1-L2_Combined_Science.pdf

 Sample assessment materials - Combined Science  sample questions and mark schemes for practice

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