Revision summary help for the 9-1 Edexcel GCSE Combined Science 1st biology paper 1 - learning objectives

Edexcel GCSE Grade 9-1 Combined Science 1SC0 Paper 1 Biology 1 - Edexcel Grade 9-1 GCSE Combined Science biology Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology", Topic 2 "Cells and control", Topic 3 "Genetics", Topic 4 "Natural selection and genetic modification", Topic 5 "Health, disease and development of medicines"

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE Combined Science 2nd biology paper 2

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE BIOLOGY 1 paper 1

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE BIOLOGY 2 paper 2

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PLEASE READ CAREFULLY THE FOLLOWING POINTS before using my Edexcel 9-1 GCSE science pages

  1. ALL my unofficial GCSE (Grade 9-1) revision help summaries are based on the NEW 2016 official Edexcel (Grade 9-1) GCSE BIOLOGY/combined science biology specifications.

  2. Make sure you know whether you are doing separate science Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 BIOLOGY OR Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science biology.

  3. Also, make sure you know whether you are entered for a higher tier (HT) or a foundation tier (FT) Edexcel GCSE science-biology course, so watch out for the (HT only) 'markers'.

  4. I hope my revision pages help as you get to know my website, its very big and not always easy to navigate, but it is no substitute for making good lesson notes, trying your best on homework questions, studying your textbook, doing past papers of Edexcel GCSE combined science/biology for exam question practice and, above all, attentive to your teacher's teaching!

  5. I know from feedback that my gcse science summary revision pages have proved useful but they do not guarantee a high grade, that all depends on you and the factors mentioned in point 4. above. Please note that my GCSE science revision pages are designed to be used for online convenience, so, beware, printouts could be quite long!
  6. Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science Biology 1 PAST PAPERS & specimen practice paper questions

  7. 'Doc b's chemistry' is a big website so the Google [SEARCH] box at the bottom of each index or revision notes page can be VERY USEFUL - sometimes its better than the indexes for finding things!



Syllabus-specification CONTENT INDEX of revision summary notes

 Note that a B after the learning objective means Edexcel GCSE biology only, NOT for Combined Science biology

Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 1 Biology 1  (this page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in biology  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 2 – Cells and control  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 3 – Genetics  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 4 – Natural selection and genetic modification  (Edexcel GCSE Comb. Sci. Biology paper 1)

SUMMARY Topic 5 – Health, disease and development of medicines  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology paper 1)


Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 2 Biology 2 (separate page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in biology  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology 2 paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 6 – Plant structures and their functions  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 7 – Animal coordination, control and homeostasis  (Edexcel GCSE Comb. Sci. Bio. paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 8 – Exchange and transport in animals   (Edexcel GCSE Comb. Science Biology 2 paper 2)

SUMMARY Topic 9 – Ecosystems and material cycles (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology paper 2)


SUBJECT CONTENT of the syllabus-specification:  (HT only) means higher tier only (NOT FT foundation tier biology)

TOPICS for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Biology 1 Paper 1

for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 1 Biology 1  (this page)

Note: a B after the learning objective number indicates it is for Edexcel GCSE Biology ONLY, NOT for Combined Science


Topic 1 Key concepts in biology



Topic 1 – Key concepts in biology  (Topic 1 content is common to all the biology papers)

(Topic 1 – Overarching concepts in biology)

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology")

You should be able to ....

1.1 Be able to explain how the sub-cellular structures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are related to their functions, including:

(a) animal cells - nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes

(b) plant cells - nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuole and ribosomes

(c) bacteria - chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, cell membrane, ribosomes and flagella.

 Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function

1.2 Be able to describe how specialised cells are adapted to their function, including:

(a) sperm cells – acrosome, haploid nucleus, mitochondria and tail

(b) egg cells – nutrients in the cytoplasm, haploid nucleus and changes in the cell membrane after fertilisation

(c) ciliated epithelial cells

1.3 Be able to explain how changes in microscope technology, including electron microscopy, have enabled us to see cell structures with more clarity and detail than in the past and increased our understanding of the role of sub-cellular structures

1.4 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of number, size and scale, including the use of estimations and explain when they should be used

1.5 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between quantitative units in relation to cells, including:

milli (10-3),  micro (10-6),  nano (10-9),  pico (10-12)

(HT only) Do calculations with numbers written in standard form

1.6 Core Practical: You should have investigated biological specimens using microscopes, including magnification calculations and labelled scientific drawings from observations.

1.7 Be able to explain the mechanism of enzyme action including the active site and enzyme specificity

1.8 Be able to explain how enzymes can be denatured due to changes in the shape of the active site

1.9 Be able to explain the effects of temperature, substrate concentration and pH on enzyme activity.

1.10 Core Practical: You should have investigated the effect of pH on enzyme activity.

1.11 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of rate calculations for enzyme activity

1.12 Be able to explain the importance of enzymes as biological catalysts in the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and their breakdown into sugars, amino acids and fatty acids and glycerol

1.15 Be able to explain how substances are transported by diffusion, osmosis and active transport

1.16 Core practical: You should have investigated osmosis in potatoes

1.17 Be able to calculate percentage gain and loss of mass in osmosis

Practicals you may have encountered and should revise too:

Investigating the effect of different concentrations of digestive enzymes, using and evaluating models of the alimentary canal.

Investigating the effect of temperatures and concentration on enzyme activity.

Investigating plant and animal cells with a light microscope.

Investigating the effect of concentration on rate of diffusion.


The other TOPICS for Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Biology PAPER 1 

Topic 2  Cells and control

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 2 "Cells and control")



Topic 2 – Cells and control   

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 2 "Cells and control")

You should be able to ....

2.1 Be able to describe mitosis as part of the cell cycle including the stages interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and cytokinesis

2.2 Be able to describe the importance of mitosis in growth, repair and asexual reproduction

2.3 Be able to describe the division of a cell by mitosis as the production of two daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes in the nucleus to the parent cell, and that this results in the formation of two genetically identical diploid body cells

2.4 Be able to describe cancer as the result of changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled cell division

2.5 Be able to describe growth in organisms, including:

(a) cell division and differentiation in animals

(b) cell division, elongation and differentiation in plants

2.6 Be able to explain the importance of cell differentiation in the development of specialised cells

2.7 Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the use of percentiles charts to monitor growth

2.8 Be able to describe the function of embryonic stem cells, stem cells in animals and meristems in plants

2.9 Discuss the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of stem cells in medicine

2.13 Be able to explain the structure and function of sensory receptors, sensory neurones, relay neurones in the CNS, motor neurones and synapses in the transmission of electrical impulses, including the axon, dendron, myelin sheath and the role of neurotransmitters

2.14 Be able to explain the structure and function of a reflex arc including sensory, relay and motor neurones

Practicals you may have encountered

Investigating human responses to external stimuli.

Investigating reaction times.

Investigating the speed of transmission of electrical impulses in the nervous system


Topic 3 Genetics

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 3 "Genetics")



Topic 3 – Genetics 

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 3 "Genetics")

You should be able to ....

3.3 Be able to explain the role of meiotic cell division, including the production of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically different haploid gametes.

 The stages of meiosis are not required

3.4 Be able to describe DNA as a polymer made up of:

(a) two strands coiled to form a double helix

(b) strands linked by a series of complementary base pairs joined together by weak hydrogen bonds

(c) nucleotides that consist of a sugar and phosphate group with one of the four different bases attached to the sugar

3.5 Be able to describe the genome as the entire DNA of an organism and a gene as a section of a DNA molecule that codes for a specific protein

3.6 Be able to explain how to extract DNA from fruit

3.12 Be able to explain why there are differences in the inherited characteristics as a result of alleles

3.13 Be able to explain the terms:  chromosome, gene, allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, genotype, phenotype, gamete and zygote

3.14 Be able to explain monohybrid inheritance using genetic diagrams, Punnett squares and family pedigrees.

3.15 Be able to describe how the sex of offspring is determined at fertilisation, using genetic diagrams

3.16 Be able to calculate and analyse outcomes (using probabilities, ratios and percentages) from monohybrid crosses and pedigree analysis for dominant and recessive traits.

3.19 Be able to state that most phenotypic features are the result of multiple genes rather than single gene inheritance.

3.20 Be able to describe the causes of variation that influence phenotype, including:

(a) genetic variation – different characteristics as a result of mutation and sexual reproduction

(b) environmental variation – different characteristics caused by an organism’s environment (acquired characteristics)

3.21 Discuss the outcomes of the Human Genome Project and its potential applications within medicine

3.22 Be able to state that there is usually extensive genetic variation within a population of a species and that these arise through mutations

3.23 Be able to state that most genetic mutations have no effect on the phenotype, some mutations have a small effect on the phenotype and, rarely, a single mutation will significantly affect the phenotype

Practicals you may have done

Investigating the variations within a species to illustrate continuous variation and discontinuous variation.

Investigating inheritance using suitable organisms or models.


Topic 4  Natural selection and genetic modification

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 4 "Natural selection and genetic modification")



Topic 4 – Natural selection and genetic modification   

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 4 "Natural selection and genetic modification")

You should be able to ....

4.2 Be able to explain Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection

4.3 Be able to explain how the emergence of resistant organisms supports Darwin’s theory of evolution including antibiotic resistance in bacteria

4.4 Be able to describe the evidence for human evolution, based on fossils, including:

(a) Ardi from 4.4 million years ago

(b) Lucy from 3.2 million years ago

(c) Leakey’s discovery of fossils from 1.6 million years ago

4.5 Be able to describe the evidence for human evolution based on stone tools, including:

(a) the development of stone tools over time

(b) how these can be dated from their environment

4.7 Be able to describe how genetic analysis has led to the suggestion of the three domains rather than the five kingdoms classification method

4.8 Be able to explain selective breeding and its impact on food plants and domesticated animals

4.10 Be able to describe genetic engineering as a process which involves modifying the genome of an organism to introduce desirable characteristics

4.11 (HT only) Be able to describe the main stages of genetic engineering including the use of:

(a) restriction enzymes,  (b) ligase,  (c) sticky ends,  (d) vectors

4.14 Evaluate the benefits and risks of genetic engineering and selective breeding in modern agriculture and medicine including practical and ethical implications


Topic 5   Health, disease and the development of medicines

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 5 "Health, disease and the development of medicines")



Topic 5 – Health, disease and the development of medicines

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 1 biology 1, Topic 5 "Health, disease and the development of medicines")

You should be able to ....

5.1 Be able to describe health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO)

5.2 Be able to describe the difference between communicable and noncommunicable diseases

5.3 Be able to explain why the presence of one disease can lead to a higher susceptibility to other diseases

5.4 Be able to describe a pathogen as a disease-causing organism including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists

5.5 Be able to describe some common infections, including:

(a) cholera (bacteria) causes diarrhoea

(b) tuberculosis (bacteria) causes lung damage

(c) Chalara ash dieback (fungi) causes leaf loss and bark lesions

(d) malaria (protists) causes damage to blood and liver

(e) HIV (virus) destroys white blood cells, leading to the onset of AIDS

5.6 Be able to explain how pathogens are spread and how this spread can be reduced or prevented, including:

(a) cholera (bacteria) - water

(b) tuberculosis (bacteria) – airborne

(c) Chalara ash dieback (fungi) - airborne

(d) malaria (protists) - animal vectors

5.8 Be able to explain how sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread and how this spread can be reduced or prevented, including:

(a) Chlamydia (bacteria)

(b) HIV (virus)

5.12 Be able to describe how the physical barriers and chemical defences of the human body provide protection from pathogens, including:

(a) physical barriers including mucus, cilia and skin

(b) chemical defence including lysozymes and hydrochloric acid

5.13 Be able to explain the role of the specific immune system of the human body in defence against disease, including:

(a) exposure to pathogen

(b) the antigens trigger an immune response which causes the production of antibodies

(c) the antigens also trigger production of memory lymphocytes

(d) the role of memory lymphocytes in the secondary response to the antigen

5.14 Be able to explain the body’s response to immunisation using an inactive form of a pathogen

5.16 Be able to explain that antibiotics can only be used to treat bacterial infections because they inhibit cell processes in the bacterium but not the host organism

5.20 Be able to describe that the process of developing new medicines, including antibiotics, has many stages including discovery, development, preclinical and clinical testing

5.23 Be able to describe that many non-communicable human diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors including cardiovascular diseases, many forms of cancer, some lung and liver diseases and diseases influenced by nutrition

5.24 Be able to explain the effect of lifestyle factors on non-communicable diseases at local, national and global levels, including:

(a) exercise and diet on obesity and malnutrition, including BMI and waist : hip ratio calculations

BMI = weight (kg) ÷ (height in m)2

(b) alcohol on liver diseases

(c) smoking on cardiovascular diseases

5.25 Be able to evaluate some different treatments for cardiovascular disease, including:

(a) life-long medication

(b) surgical procedures

(c) lifestyle changes

Practicals you may have encountered

Investigating antimicrobial properties of plants.

Investigating the conditions affecting growth of micro-organisms (using resazurin dye).

 


PAST PAPERS     (Practice exam question papers for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 1 Biology 1 for questions on Topic 1 "Key concepts in biology", Topic 2 "Cells and control", Topic 3 "Genetics", Topic 4 "Natural selection and genetic modification", Topic 5 "Health, disease and development of medicines")



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Edexcel GCSE Sciences (Grade 9-1) Level 1/Level 2 specifications syllabuses, specimen papers, past exam papers

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Specifications - syllabuses, past exam papers, specimen practice question papers

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1SC0 syllabus  Edexcel_GCSE_L1-L2_Combined_Science.pdf

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