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Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Revision Notes

Part 8. The p–block elements: 8.2 Group 4/14 carbon & silicon in particular

The physical and chemical properties of the group 4/14 elements, in particular, carbon and silicon are described and explained in detail. Data table, symbol equations, oxidation states, formulae of oxides & chlorides etc.

For non–A level students ...

 (c) doc b KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE Periodic Table notes links

INORGANIC Part 8 The p–block elements page sub–index: 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction – Boron & Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction – Carbon & Silicon – semi–metals e.g. Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction – Nitrogen & Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction – Oxygen & Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases * 9. Group 7/17 The Halogens (separate section pages)

Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s–block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p–block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots


Group 4/14 Introduction

 

Pd s block d blocks and f blocks of metallic elements p block elements
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3/13 Group4/14 Gp5/15 Gp6/16 Gp7/17 Gp0/18
1

1H

2He
2 3Li 4Be The modern Periodic Table of Elements

ZSymbol, z = atomic or proton number

highlighting position of Group 4/14 elements

5B 6C

carbon

7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si

silicon

15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge

germanium

33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn

tin

51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba 57-71 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb

lead

83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
7 87Fr 88Ra 89-103 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Uut 114Fl

flerovium

115Uup 116Lv 117Uus 118Uuo

 

down group 4/14 ===>
property\Zsymbol, name 6C carbon 14Si Silicon 32Ge Germanium 50Sn Tin 82Pb Lead
Period 2 3 4 5 6
Appearance (RTP) soft black solid (graphite) / hard clear light coloured crystal (diamond) black amorphous powder or blue–grey metalloid – pure for semi–conductors silvery white brittle metal soft silvery metal soft grey dull–silvery metal
melting pt./oC 3547 sub 1410 937 232 328
boiling pt./oC 4827 sub 2355 2830 2270 1740
density/ gcm–3 2.3 (graphite)

3.5 (diamond)

2.3 5.3 5.8 11.4
1st IE/ kJmol–1 1086 786 762 709 716
2nd IE/kJmol–1 2350 1580 1540 1410 1450
3rd IE/kJmol–1 4610 3230 3300 2940 3080
4th IE/kJmol–1 6220 4360 4390 2930 4080
5th IE/kJmol–1 37800 16000 8950 7780 6700
atomic covalent or metallic radius/pm 77 (cov) 117 (cov) 139 (met) 158 (met) 175 (met)
Van der Waals radius/pm 170 210 na 190 200
M2+ radius/pm na na 90 93 132
M4+ radius/pm na na na 74 84
El'de p'l M(s)/M2+(aq) na na –0.25V –0.14V –0.13V
El'de p'l M2+(aq)/M4+(aq) na na 0.00V +0.15V +1.69V
electronegativity 2.55 1.90 2.01 1.96 2.33
simple electron config. 2,4 2,8,4 2,8,18,4 2,8,18,18,4 2,8,18,32,18,3
electron configuration [He]2s22p2 [Ne]3s23p2 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p2
principal oxidation states e.g. –4 CH4, +2 CO, +4 CO2 +4, –4 +2, +4 +2, +4 +2, +4
property\Zsymbol, name 6C carbon 14Si Silicon 32Ge Germanium 50Sn Tin 82Pb Lead
************************** ******************** ******************* *********************** ******************** *********************

 

Pd s block d blocks and f blocks of metallic elements p block elements
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3/13 Group4/Group 14 Gp5/15 Gp6/16 Gp7/17 Gp0/18
1

1H 1s1

2He 1s2
2 3Li [He]2s1 4Be [He]2s2 Electronic structure of selected elements of the periodic table

ZSymbol, Z = atomic/proton number = total electrons in neutral atom

elec. config. abbreviations: [He] = 1s2 [Ne] = 1s22s22p6

[Ar] = 1s22s22p63s23p6     [Kr] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

5B [He]2s22p1 6C

[He]2s22p2

7N [He]2s22p3 8O [He]2s22p4 9F [He]2s22p5 10Ne [He]2s22p6
3 11Na [Ne]3s1 12Mg [Ne]3s2 13Al [Ne]3s23p1 14Si

[Ne]3s23p2

15P [Ne]3s23p3 16S [Ne]3s23p4 17Cl [Ne]3s23p5 18Ar [Ne]3s23p6
4 19K [Ar]4s1 20Ca [Ar]4s2 21Sc [Ar] 3d14s2 22Ti [Ar] 3d24s2 23V [Ar] 3d34s2 24Cr [Ar] 3d54s1 25Mn [Ar] 3d54s2 26Fe [Ar] 3d64s2 27Co [Ar] 3d74s2 28Ni [Ar] 3d84s2 29Cu [Ar] 3d104s1 30Zn [Ar] 3d104s2 31Ga [Ar] 3d104s24p1 32Ge

[Ar] 3d104s24p2

33As [Ar] 3d104s24p3 34Se [Ar] 3d104s24p4 35Br [Ar] 3d104s24p5 36Kr [Ar] 3d104s24p6
5 37Rb [Kr]5s1 38Sr [Kr]5s2 39Y [Kr] 4d15s2 40Zr [Kr] 4d25s2 41Nb [Kr] 4d45s1 42Mo [Kr] 4d55s1 43Tc [Kr] 4d55s2 44Ru [Kr] 4d75s1 45Rh [Kr] 4d85s1 46Pd [Kr] 4d10 47Ag [Kr] 4d105s1 48Cd [Kr] 4d105s2 49In [Kr] 4d105s25p1 50Sn

[Kr] 4d105s25p2

51Sb [Kr] 4d105s25p3 52Te [Kr] 4d105s25p4 53I [Kr] 4d105s25p5 54Xe [Kr] 4d105s25p6
6 55Cs [Xe]6s1 56Ba [Xe]6s2 4f–block and 5d–block in period 6 including Lanthanide Series 81Tl [Xe] 4f145d106s26p1 82Pb

[Xe] 4f145d106s26p2

83Bi [Xe] 4f145d106s26p3 84Po [Xe] 4f145d106s26p4 85At [Xe] 4f145d106s26p5 86Rn [Xe] 4f145d106s26p6
7 87Fr [Rn]7s1 88Ra [Rn]7s2 5f–block & 6d–block including Actinide Series of Metals in period 7 113Uut [Rn] 5f146d107s27p1 114Fl

[Rn] 5f146d107s27p2

115Uup [Rn] 5f146d107s27p3 116Lv [Rn] 5f146d107s27p4 117Uus [Rn] 5f146d107s27p5 118Uuo [Rn] 5f146d107s27p6
  **************************  

 

  • Generally speaking down a p block group the element becomes more metallic in chemical character.

  • Carbon and silicon are essentially non–metals, germanium is a metalloid.

  • Tin is basically metallic with a little non–metallic chemical character, lead is a metal.

  • El'd p'l = standard electrode potential at 298 K, 1M solution concentration

     

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


CARBON – brief summary of a few points

  • The structure of the element:

    • Non–metal existing as three allotropes covalently bonded. Diamond (tetrahedral bond network) and graphite (layers of connected hexagonal rings) have giant covalent structures Cn where n is an extremely large number, and a series of large molecules (3rd allotrope) called fullerenes e.g. C60.

    • Bonding details and diagrams of the allotropes of carbon.

  • Physical properties

    • mpt 3547oC; bpt 4827oC; very hard colourless/light coloured diamond (poor conductor) or dark softish/slippery crystals of graphite (moderate conductor of heat/electricity).

  • Group, electron configuration (and oxidation states)

    • Gp4; e.c. 2,4 or 1s22s22p2;  (can be +2, but usually +4) e.g.

    • (+2) CO, (+4) CO2 and CCl4 etc.

  • Reaction of element with oxygen

    • Burns when heated in air to form carbon dioxide gas.

      • C(s) + O2(g) ==> CO2(g)

      • In limited air/oxygen, carbon monoxide would be formed too.

      • 2C(s) + O2(g) ==> 2CO(g)

  • Reaction of carbon dioxide with water:

    • Quite soluble to form a weakly acid solution of pH 4–5. So called carbonic acid, H2CO3, does not really exist, but the dissolved carbon dioxide reacts with water to form hydrogen/oxonium ions and hydrogencarbonate ions. The equilibrium is very much on the left – hence the fizz in 'fizzy drinks'!

      • CO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3(aq) 

  • Reaction of oxide with acids:

    • None, only acidic in acid–base behaviour.

  • Reaction of oxide with bases/alkalis:

    • It is a weakly acidic oxide dissolving sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium carbonate.

    • CO2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) ==> Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

    • ionic equation: CO2(g) + 2OH(aq) ==> CO32–(aq) + H2O(l)

    • With excess of carbon dioxide, sodium hydrogencarbonate is formed.

    • CO2(g) + Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) ==> 2NaHCO3(aq)  

    • ionic equation: CO2(g) + CO32–(aq) + H2O(l) ==> 2HCO3(aq)  

  • Reaction of element with chlorine

    • None directly.

    • Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride) is made by fully chlorinating methane in a multi–stage reaction.

      • CH4(g) + 4Cl2(g) ==> CCl4(l) + 4HCl(g)

  • Reaction of chloride with water:

    • None. CCl4(l) cannot readily act as a Lewis acid* and accept a lone pair from a water molecule at the polar C–Cl bond to start the hydrolysis process.

      • * In the case of SiCl4, 3d orbitals can be used to accept a lone pair from water, so providing a mechanistic route for hydrolysis to occur. (compare with silicon).

  • Reaction of element with water:

    • No reaction with cold water but red hot carbon reacts with steam to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

      • C(s) + H2O(g) ==> CO(g) + H2(g) 

  • Other comments:

    • All of organic chemistry is based on the compounds of carbon except for the oxides and carbonates.

 

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

The structure of the elements carbon and silicon and their oxides

The structure of the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite and fullerenes), silicon and silicon dioxide (silica)

DIAGRAMS

  • It is possible for many atoms to link up to form a giant covalent structure or lattice. The atoms are usually non–metals.
  • This produces a very strong 3–dimensional covalent bond network or lattice.
  • This gives them significantly different properties from the small simple covalent molecules mentioned above.
  • In carbon dioxide, the smaller C atom can form a double bond with oxygen, but in silicon dioxide (silicon(IV) oxide, silica, quartz) the larger Si atom can only form single Si–O bonds.

  • The result is SiO2 has a giant 3D covalent lattice structure or network in which each silicon atom forms 4 bonds to an oxygen in a 'tetrahedral' spatial arrangement.

  • The structure is therefore held together by strong covalent bonds (not weak intermolecular forces) and so it is far more thermally stable giving a high melting point, and insoluble in any solvent, because solvation energies are much lower than covalent bond energies.

  • Carbon and silicon are two elements which form giant covalent structures i.e. they are high melting and insoluble solids.

  • Carbon (diamond) and silicon form networks based on tetrahedral arrangements of C–C or Si–Si bonds around each atom. Both are very hard substances because of the strong bonding, diamond is harder because the smaller C atoms give shorter stronger bonds. Both are poor conductors of electricity because the outer electrons are strongly held and localised between the two atoms of any bond.

  • However, carbon in the form of graphite, forms hexagonal ring layers in which the three C–C single bonds are supplemented by delocalised electron bonding from the 4th out electron of carbon. This makes graphite a moderately good electrical conductor as the electrons can move freely through a layer. The layers are held together by weak inter–molecular forces and easily slip over each other making graphite a 'slippery' brittle solid. But as a giant covalent structure it is still high melting and insoluble.

  • Relatively recently (and another case of serendipity!) a 3rd form of carbon has been discovered in the form of the 'ball shaped' fullerenes.

  • TYPICAL PROPERTIES of GIANT COVALENT STRUCTURES
  • This type of giant covalent structure is thermally very stable and has a very high melting and boiling points because of the strong covalent bond network (3D or 2D in the case of graphite below).
  • A relatively large amount of energy is needed to melt or boil giant covalent structures. Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances are compared in a section of the Energetics Notes.
  • They are usually poor conductors of electricity because the electrons are not usually free to move as they can in metallic structures.
  • Also because of the strength of the bonding in all directions in the structure, they are often very hard, strong and will not dissolve in solvents like water. The bonding network is too strong to allow the atoms to become surrounded by solvent molecules
  • Silicon dioxide [silicon(IV) oxide, silica, SiO2] has a similar 3D structure and properties to carbon (diamond) e.g. very hard, very high melting point and virtually insoluble in anything!
    • This contrasts sharply with the structure and properties of the gas carbon dioxide which is a small covalent molecule.
    • With only weak intermolecular forces between the O=C=O molecules it consequently has a very low melting/boiling point (actually it sublimes at –78oC). Carbon dioxide readily dissolves in solvents such as water and organic polar solvents.
    • Carbon dioxide has two polar bonds, Cδ+=Od–, but because of the linearity of the molecule the two permanent dipoles cancel out to give overall a non–polar molecule
    • Note that carbon + oxygen, instead of forming a 3D network of O–C–O single bonds, with the smaller carbon atom, it is energetically more favourable to form C=O double bonds and thus forming a small triatomic molecule.
  • The hardness of diamond enables it to be used as the 'leading edge' on cutting tools.
  • Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances is given in a section of the Energetics Notes.
  • Many naturally occurring minerals are based on –O–X–O– linked 3D structures where X is often silicon (Si) and aluminium (Al), three of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust.
    • Silicon dioxide is found as quartz in granite (igneous rock) and is the main component in sandstone – which is a sedimentary rock formed the compressed erosion products of igneous rocks.
    • Many some minerals that are hard wearing, rare and attractive when polished, hold great value as gemstones.

Carbon–DIAMOND and silicon

(c) doc b

  

 

 

  SILICA

silicon dioxide

(c) doc b

 

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links

  • Carbon also occurs in the form of graphite. The carbon atoms form joined hexagonal rings forming layers 1 atom thick.
  • There are three strong covalent bonds per carbon (3 C–C bonds in a planar arrangement from 3 of its 4 outer electrons), BUT, the fourth outer electron is 'delocalised' or shared between the carbon atoms to form the equivalent of a 4th bond per carbon atom (this situation requires advanced level concepts to fully explain, and this bonding situation also occurs in fullerenes described below, and in aromatic compounds you deal with at advanced level).
  • The layers are only held together by weak intermolecular forces shown by the dotted lines NOT by strong covalent bonds.
  • Like diamond and silica (above) the large molecules of the layer ensure graphite has typically very high melting point because of the strong 2D bonding network (note: NOT 3D network)..
  • Graphite will not dissolve in solvents because of the strong bonding
  • BUT there are two crucial differences compared to diamond ...
    • Electrons, from the 'shared bond', can move freely through each layer, so graphite is a conductor like a metal (diamond is an electrical insulator and a poor heat conductor). Graphite is used in electrical contacts e.g. electrodes in electrolysis.
    • The weak forces enable the layers to slip over each other so where as diamond is hard material graphite is a 'soft' crystal, it feels slippery. Graphite is used as a lubricant.
  • These two different characteristics described above are put to a common use with the electrical contacts in electric motors and dynamos. These contacts (called brushes) are made of graphite sprung onto the spinning brass contacts of the armature. The graphite brushes provide good electrical contact and are self–lubricating as the carbon layers slide over each other.

GRAPHITE

(c) doc b

  • A 3rd form of carbon are fullerenes or 'bucky balls'! It consists of hexagonal rings like graphite and alternating pentagonal rings to allow curvature of the surface.
  • Buckminster Fullerene C60 is shown and the bonds form a pattern like a soccer ball. Others are oval shaped like a rugby ball. It is a black solid insoluble in water.
  • They are NOT considered giant covalent structures and are classed as simple molecules. They do dissolve in organic solvents giving coloured solutions (e.g. deep red in petrol hydrocarbons, and although solid, their melting points are not that high.
  • They are mentioned here to illustrate the different forms of carbon AND they can be made into continuous tubes to form very strong fibres of 'pipe like' molecules called 'nanotubes'. These 'molecular size' particles behave quite differently to a bulk carbon material like graphite.
  • Uses of Nanotubes:
    • They can be used as semiconductors in electrical circuits.
    • They act as a component of industrial catalysts for certain reactions whose economic efficiency is of great importance (time = money in business!).
      • The catalyst can be attached to the nanotubes which have a huge surface are per mass of catalyst 'bed'.
      • They large surface combined with the catalyst ensure two rates of reaction factors work in harmony to increase the speed of the industrial reaction.
    • Nanotube fibres are very strong and so they are used in 'composite materials' e.g. reinforcing graphite in carbon fibre tennis rackets.
    • Nanotubes can 'cage' other molecules and can be used as a means of delivering drugs in controlled way to the body.

FULLERENES

(c) doc b

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

SILICON – brief summary of a few points

  • The structure of the element:

    • Non–metal existing as a giant covalent lattice, Sin, , where n is an extremely large number, held together by tetrahedrally arranged Si–Si bonds.

  • Physical properties

    • Hard high melting solid; mpt 1410oC; bpt 2355oC;  poor conductor of heat/electricity, but with other elements added, conducts better, hence use in microchips.

  • Group, electron configuration (and oxidation states)

    • Gp4; e.c. 2,8,4 or 1s22s22p63s23p2;  (+4 only) e.g. SiO2 and SiCl4 etc.

  • Reaction of element with oxygen

    • Reacts when strongly heated in air to form silicon dioxide (silica, silicon(IV) oxide).

      • Si(s) + O2(g) ==> SiO2(g) 

  • Reaction of oxide with water:

    • None and insoluble.

  • Reaction of oxide with acids:

    • None, only acidic in nature.

  • Reaction of oxide with bases/alkalis:

    • It is a weakly acidic oxide dissolving very slowly in hot concentrated sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium silicate.

    • SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq) ==> Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l)

    • or simplified ionic equation: SiO2(s) + 2OH(aq) ==> SiO32–(aq) + H2O(l)

  • Reaction of element with chlorine

    • On heating in chlorine forms the covalent liquid silicon tetrachloride.

      • Si(s) + 2Cl2(g) ==> SiCl4(l)

  • Reaction of chloride with water:

    • Hydrolyses to form gelatinous hydrated silicon oxide and hydrochloric acid.

      • SiCl4(l) + 2H2O(l) ==> SiO2(s) + 4HCl(aq) 

  • Reaction of element with water:

    • None 

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

Shapes and bond angles of some molecules and ions of carbon and silicon

(c) doc b(c) doc b(c) doc b(c) doc b

With 4 bond pairs of bonding electrons and no lone pairs you get a TETRAHEDRAL shape: e.g. methane CH4, silicon hydride SiH4 with H–X–H bond angle of 109o and similarly ions like the ammonium ion NH4+. Note: No lone pair, no extra repulsion, no reduction in angle, therefore perfect tetrahedral angle (Q = H, X = C, Si, Ge etc. in group 4)

 

(c) doc b(c) doc b

Similarly with 4 bond pairs, again a TETRAHEDRAL shape: e.g. tetrachloromethane CCl4 or SiCl4 with exact Cl–C–Cl and Cl–Si–Cl bond angles of 109o

 

Carbonate ion, CO32– is trigonal planar in shape with a O–C–O bond angle of 120o because of three groups of bonding electrons and no lone pairs of electrons.

The shape is deduced below using dot and cross diagrams and VSEPR theory and illustrated below.

selected molecule/ion shapes based on carbon valence bond dot and cross diagram

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

The chemistry of carbonates

Carbonates and hydrogencarbonates of Groups 1–2 are dealt with in s–block notes sections 7.9 to 7.12

and

Notes on limestone – calcium carbonate

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

Semi–metals or 'metalloids'

Gp

3/13

Gp

4/14

Gp

5/15

Gp

6/16

BASIC IDEA: A narrow diagonal band of elements can show both metallic and non–metallic physical or chemical properties and are referred to as 'semi–metals' or 'metalloids'. Although most tend to be nearer being a metal or a non–metal, they do represent the point elements change from metal to non–metal as you move from left to right across the Periodic Table BUT please read the notes below carefully!
B C N O To me boron, B, is clearly a non–metal, showing no real metallic character and I'm not sure why it is sometimes shown as a semi–metal on some periodic tables? and is very different in character to metallic aluminium below it in the same group. Boron's oxide is acidic only, and the solid element consists of a non–conducting giant covalent structure, both classic non–metallic properties. Carbon, C, is also clearly a non–metal, its oxide is acidic and in the form of diamond, it is a non–electrical conducting 3D giant covalent structure. However, in the form of graphite, it has a layered 2D giant covalent structure that does allow electricity to conduct through the layers.
Al Si P S Physically and chemically aluminium, Al, is very much a metal, but the oxide/hydroxide reacts with both acids (metallic) and alkalis (acidic) to form salts showing dual character. Silicon is mainly non–metallic character e.g. the oxide is acidic but, although the solid element has a giant covalent structure, it shows slight electrical conducting properties (semi–conductor), especially when doped with other elements and used in computer chip technology. To me, neither are true semi–metals.
Ga Ge As Se Germanium, Ge, is considered as a true semi–metal (metalloid). Like silicon, germanium is a semi–conductor and used in electronic technology. Its oxide/hydroxide react with both acids/alkalis showing dual metal/non–metal character. Arsenic, As, is also a true metalloid with oxides/hydroxides that react both with acids/ and alkalis to form salts and the element exists in two allotropic* crystalline forms. One form is less dense, non–conducting and covalent in structure (non–metal) and the other is more dense and weakly electrical conducting (metallic) and used in transistors. Selenium, Se, is also a semi–conductor with metallic and non–metallic properties and is used in photo–electric cells (solar cells) and xerography (photocopying). (*Allotropes are different physical forms of the same element in the same physical state.)
In Sn Sb Te Arsenic, As, (like antimony in the same group), is also a true semi–metal (metalloid) with oxides/hydroxides that react both with acids/ and alkalis to form salts and the element exists in two allotropic* crystalline forms (non–metallic and metallic). Tellurium, Te, is also a semi–conductor with metallic and non–metallic properties. Both As and Te are used in electronic devices.
Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

WHAT NEXT?

INORGANIC Part 8 The p–block elements page sub–index: 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction – Boron & Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction – Carbon & Silicon – semi–metals e.g. Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction – Nitrogen & Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction – Oxygen & Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases * 9. Group 7/17 The Halogens (separate section pages)

Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s–block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p–block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots

 

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