Doc Brown's GCE Chemistry Revising Advanced Level Organic Chemistry
GCE A Level Revision Notes PART 10 Summary of organic reaction mechanisms
A mechanistic introduction to organic chemistry and explanations of different types of organic reactions
10.7 Acid (Acyl) Chlorides
Reaction with ammonia and amines
Examples are explained of the organic chemistry mechanisms for acid/acyl chlorides undergoing nucleophilic addition and elimination reactions. Amide formation from reaction with ammonia or primary amines. The revision notes include full diagrams and explanation of the mechanisms and the 'molecular' equation and reaction conditions are also explained.
10.7.1 Introduction to their reactivity
Only acid chloride reactions are considered at the moment and the high reactivity of acyl chlorides is towards nucleophilic attack is due to the highly polarised situation of the carbon–oxygen/chlorine bonds i.e.
10.7.4 Amide formation via acyl chloride by nucleophilic addition–elimination
The organic synthesis of amides from acid/acyl chlorides and ammonia/amines
mechanism 15 – nucleophilic addition–elimination reaction for an acyl chloride forming an amide from ammonia
mechanism 15 – nucleophilic addition–elimination reaction for an acyl chloride forming a secondary amide (N–substituted amide) from a primary amine
keywords phrases: reaction conditions formula intermediates organic chemistry reaction mechanisms nucleophilic addition elimination R–COCl + 2NH3 ==> R–CONH2 + NH4+ + Cl– R–COCl + 2R'NH2 ==> R–CONHR' + RNH3+ + Cl– R–COCl + R'NH2 ==> R–CONHR' + HCl
APPENDIX - COMPLETE MECHANISM and Organic Synthesis INDEX (so far!)
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