Doc Brown's GCE Chemistry Revising Advanced Level Organic Chemistry
A Level Revision Notes PART 10 Summary of organic reaction mechanisms
A mechanistic introduction to organic chemistry and explanations of different types of organic reactions
Part 10.4 Halogenoalkanes
Reaction with cyanide ion
Part 10.4 HALOGENOALKANES - introduction to the mechanisms of halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides). Nucleophilic substitution by by the nucleophile, the cyanide ion to form nitriles. These revision notes include full diagrams and explanation of the nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanisms of halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) and the 'molecular' equation and reaction conditions and other con-current reaction pathways and products are also explained when halogenoalkanes react with potassium cyanide to give nitriles.
10.4 HALOGENOALKANES (old names 'haloalkanes' or 'alkyl halides')
10.4.1 Introduction to halogenoalkane reactivity
10.4.3 The nucleophilic substitution of halogenoalkane by cyanide ion
Organic synthesis of nitriles from halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) by reaction with potassium cyanide
This is usually achieved by refluxing the halogenoalkane with ethanolic potassium cyanide to form the nitrile.
mechanism 36 - nucleophilic substitution of a halogenoalkane by cyanide ion (SN1 'unimolecular' via carbocation)
mechanism 8 - nucleophilic substitution of a halogenoalkane by cyanide ion (SN2 'bimolecular')
keywords phrases: reaction conditions formula intermediates organic chemistry reaction mechanisms nucleophilic substitution R3C-X + CN- ==> R3C-CN + X-
APPENDIX - COMPLETE MECHANISM and Organic Synthesis INDEX (so far!)