The Structure and Naming of ALDEHYDES & KETONES
Doc Brown's GCE A Level AS A2 Chemistry
Revising Advanced Level Organic Chemistry
Revision Notes Part 5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
NOMENCLATURE of ALDEHYDES and KETONES
5.1 The molecular structure and naming of ALDEHYDES and KETONES - including nomenclature of some isomers
Nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones names and structures of aldehydes & ketones How to name aldehydes? How to name ketones? Nomenclature of substituted aldehydes or ketones - examples of acceptable names, displayed formula of aldehydes and ketones, graphic formula of aldehydes and ketones, molecular formula of aldehydes and ketones, skeletal formula of aldehydes and ketones, structural formula of aldehydes and ketones and homologous series of aldehydes and ketones, how to name the carbonyl group of compounds known as aldehydes and ketones
Revision notes on the structure and naming-nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
5.1.1 Introduction to Aldehyde and Ketone Nomenclature
5.1.2 Examples of Aldehydes
Methanal is a trigonal planar
shape and the planarity gives H-C=O and H-C-H bond angles of 120o.
Bond angles from left to right:
H-C-C 109o, C-C=O 120o, C-C-H 120o and
butanal (butyraldehyde), , ,
Bond angles: The trigonal
planarity around the carbonyl group >C=O gives a C-C=O and C-C(=O)-C of 120o
and associated with the methyl group, the H-C-C and H-C-H bond angles are
3-methylbutan-2-one (2 and 3 not strictly needed BUT advisable, 3-methyl-2-butanone),
pentan-2-one (2-pentanone), , ,
1 to 3, 5 to 6 and 10 are formed by the reaction of the parent ketone with iodine in the presence of an acid (e.g. HCl(aq), because H+(aq) catalyses the reaction)
5.1.5 Alcohol oxidation sequences
The reagent can be potassium dichromate(VI) K2Cr2O7 , acidified with diluted sulphuric acid H2SO4(aq) (colour change is orange to green).
However the oxidation products depend on the original structure of the alcohol. The alcohol functional group -OH in aliphatic alcohols is classified into primary, secondary and tertiary types (see below). When the -OH is attached directly to a benzene ring the molecule is called a phenol.
Primary aliphatic alcohols R-OH, R is H or alkyl: When oxidised they form aldehydes and then further oxidation gives a relatively stable carboxylic acid e.g.
Secondary aliphatic alcohols R-CH(OH)-R', R or R' are both alkyl (can be aryl): When oxidised they form relatively stable ketones (see NOTE below) e.g.
Tertiary aliphatic alcohols RR'R"C-OH, where R,R' or R" are all alkyl (or aryl): These are relatively stable to oxidation (see NOTE 1. further down) e.g.
LINKS TO ASSOCIATED ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PAGES
formula keywords: how to name naming nomenclature empirical molecular formula graphic formula displayed formula skeletal formula structural isomers isomerism 5.1.1 carbonyl compounds Nomenclature introduction * 5.1.2 Examples of aldehydes * 5.1.3 Examples of ketones * 5.1.4 Other examples of substituted ketones CH2O HCHO C2H4O CH3CHO CH3-CHO C3H6O CH3CH2CHO CH3-CH2-CHO CH3COCH3 CH3-CO-CH3 C4H8O CH3CH2CH2CHO CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO CH3COCH2CH3 CH3-CO-CH2-CH3 C5H10O CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO CH3COCH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2COCH2CH3 C7H6O C6H5CHO C6H5COCH3 chemistry revision notes structure of aldehydes & ketones how to name aldehydes ketone for AQA AS chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for Edexcel A level AS chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level OCR AS chemistry A, how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR Salters AS chemistry B, how to name aldehydes ketone for AQA A level chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level Edexcel A level chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR A level chemistry A, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level OCR Salters A level chemistry B how to name aldehydes ketone for US Honours grade 11 grade 12 how to name aldehydes ketone for pre-university chemistry courses pre-university A level revision notes for how to name aldehydes ketone A level guide notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for schools colleges academies science course tutors images pictures diagrams for how to name aldehydes ketone A level chemistry revision notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for revising module topics notes to help on understanding of how to name aldehydes ketone university courses in science careers in science jobs in the industry laboratory assistant apprenticeships technical internships USA US grade 11 grade 11 AQA A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone Edexcel A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR A level chemistry notes WJEC A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone CCEA/CEA A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for university entrance examinations describe the molecular structure of aldehydes & ketones, notes on how to name aldehydes & ketones, how to draw skeletal formula of aldehydes & ketones, how to use the IUPAC nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones, examples of aldehydes & ketones molecular structures, diagrams of isomeric aldehydes & ketones, naming isomers of aldehydes & ketones
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