FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION, Air Pollution & Climate Change

4B Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry

See also 4A Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

4C Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

4D Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

Doc Brown's GCSE/IGCSE/O Level KS4 science-CHEMISTRY Revision Notes


GCSE/IGCSE/O Level Oil Products & Organic Chemistry INDEX PAGE

ALL my Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry revision notes


Although fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas are extremely useful important sources of energy, the environment does pay a price, so it is important to understand the risks and economics involved in oil extraction for the petrochemical industry  These notes are designed to meet the highest standards of knowledge and understanding required for students/pupils doing GCSE chemistry, IGCSE chemistry, O Level chemistry and KS4 science courses. These revision notes on the combustion of fossil fuels and pollution problems, climate change and global warming should prove useful for the NEW AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry & OCR GCSE chemistry (Gateway & 21st Century) GCSE (9–1), (9-5) & (5-1) science courses.

 

doc b oil notesdoc b oil notes4B Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry

  • 'COSTS'?: Our economy, like many other countries has become very dependent on the extraction, sale and use of oil based products. BUT, there is high price to be paid at times whether it be pollution effects or warring countries with oil economics factors.

    • The price of oil can vary with market forces determined by the World's economy AND political instability and wars, particularly in the major oil producing Middle-East Arab Gulf states affect the price too.

    • Therefore, without alternative energy resources, we are at the mercy of forces beyond our control.

    • If stocks or production rates fall, the price of crude oil rises.

    • Richer countries can afford more costly oil and can stockpile it, developing countries will struggle to compete.

    • In order to preserve our crude oil and gas supplies we sometimes compromise our ideals when dealing with the politics of countries we may think unsuitable.

  • Oil extraction and ACCIDENTS: Oil rig accidents, broken pipelines, oil tanker wrecks etc. all have terrible effects on the plant and animal life of the locality as we see from the horrible TV pictures of seabirds coated in oil, and toxic oil slicks covering the beaches and sands.

    • Birds get poisoned when trying to clean themselves as crude oil sticks to feathers, and other animals like sea otters, whales can be poisoned too.

    • In fact the whole marine ecosystem of an area can be devastated so that even creatures not directly poisoned can be affected if their food chain is disrupted.

    • Even the use of huge amounts of detergents to break up oil slicks and disperse the pollution may damage aquatic ecosystems too.

    • Detergents can be toxic to some se creatures e.g. species of fish and molluscs like shellfish.

  • Fire hazard:

    • There is also the risk to humans from fires and explosions on rigs or at oil refinery installations and fuel storage depots etc.

    • There have been several tragic accidents in extracting oil from the North Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico.

  • Fracking:

    • Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside.

    • Fracking involves the process of drilling down into the earth to layers of rock e.g. shale containing absorbed hydrocarbon gases.

    • Then a high-pressure water mixture containing various chemicals is directed at the rock to fracture the rock and release the hydrocarbon gas.

    • This injection of water, sand and chemicals at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well to complete the extraction process.

    • Extracting oil and gas from e.g. shale deposits is proving controversial in the US and UK.

    • Ground pollution has been reported and the process does use lots of harmful chemicals.


GCSE/IGCSE/O Level Oil Products & Organic Chemistry INDEX PAGE

ALL my Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry revision notes

Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (easier-foundation-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (harder-higher-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry

and (c) doc b 3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

ALSO gap-fill ('word-fill') exercises originally written for ...

... AQA GCSE Science (c) doc b Useful products from crude oil AND (c) doc b Oil, Hydrocarbons & Cracking etc.

... OCR 21st C GCSE Science (c) doc b Worksheet gap-fill C1.1c Air pollutants etc ...

... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation etc ...

... each set are interlinked, so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes


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GCSE/IGCSE/O Level Oil Products & Organic Chemistry INDEX PAGE

ALL my Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry revision notes

See also 4A Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

4C Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

4D Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

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