Brown's GCSE/IGCSE/O Level KS4 science–CHEMISTRY Revision Notes
Oil, useful products, environmental problems, introduction to
2. Fractional distillation of crude oil AND
the uses of fractions (related to their molecular
–This page describes the
separation of useful products from crude oil by the process of fractional
distillation, part of the oil refining process in the petrochemical industry. Crude oil provides the starting raw material for making lots of
different chemicals for a variety of uses. The uses of the fractions from
fractional distillation fuel gas, LPG, refinery gas, gasoline, petrol,
naphtha, paraffin, kerosene, diesel oil, gas oil, fuel oil, lubricating oils,
wax and bitumen fractions are tabulated and many are non–renewable fuels. The uses of a fraction is related to
its physical properties e.g. ease of vaporisation & boiling point or its
viscosity ('stickiness') and the dangers of flammability are pointed out too.
These notes on fractional distillation of oil and the uses of oil fractions are
designed to meet the highest standards of knowledge and understanding required
for students/pupils doing GCSE chemistry, IGCSE chemistry, O
Level chemistry and KS4 science courses.
Index of KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE
Chemistry Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages: 1.
Fossil Fuels : 2. Fractional
distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions : 3.
ALKANES – saturated hydrocarbons and combustion
Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, what
makes a good fuel?, climate change–global warming : 5. Alkenes
– unsaturated hydrocarbons : 6. Cracking – a
problem of supply and demand, other products : 7. Polymers,
plastics, uses and problems : 8. Introduction to
Organic Chemistry – Why so many series of organic compounds? : 9. Alcohols
– Ethanol – properties, reactions, biofuels : 10. Carboxylic
acids and esters : 11. Condensation
polymers, Nylon & Terylene, comparing thermoplastics, fibres and thermosets
: 12. Natural Molecules – carbohydrates – sugars
starch : 13. Amino acids, proteins, enzymes &
chromatography : 14. Oils, fats, margarine and
soaps : 15. Vitamins, drugs–analgesic medicines
& food additives and aspects of cooking chemistry! : 16. Ozone,
CFC's and free radicals : 17. Extra notes,
ideas and links on Global Warming and Climate Change : Multiple Choice and
m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (GCSE/IGCSE
m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (GCSE/IGCSE
IGCSE/GCSE m/c QUIZ on other Aspects
of Organic Chemistry
3 Easy linked GCSE/IGCSE Oil Products word–fill
ALL my Advanced
Level Organic Chemistry revision notes
SEPARATION of the crude oil mixture into fractions
by fractional distillation
the USES of
oil is formed from the organic remains of plants and animals buried and heated
under pressure over millions of years (See
The complex mixture of hydrocarbons can be separated into fractions by
the technique of fractional distillation.
Crude oil cannot be used directly but must be
refined before commercially useful products are produced by the
petrochemical industry (collectively called petrochemicals).
The oil refining process principally involves
fractional distillation into useful fractions i.e. products with
specific uses, but further processing may needed to diversify both the quantity
and nature of particular oil based products.
A fraction is a
mixture of liquids (in this case hydrocarbons) with a relatively narrow (restricted)
boiling point range of molecules.
Within each fraction obtained from crude oil the
hydrocarbon molecules have a similar number of carbon atoms and
similar physical properties.
The uses of the fractions very much depends on their physical properties,
which in turn are dependant on the length of the molecule i.e. the carbon atom
chain in a hydrocarbon molecule.
molecules are only made of a chemical combination of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
They are compounds
because they consist of atoms of at least two different elements.
All the bonding is
covalent C–C or C–H bonds
What goes on in an oil refinery?
Crude oil is a complex mixture
of many compounds, but mainly
hydrocarbon compound molecules.
- A mixture consists of two or more
compounds which are NOT chemically combined.
- The chemical
properties of each substance in the mixture is unchanged as the there are
no chemical bonds between the hydrocarbon molecules.
- Therefore a mixture can be separated
quite easily by physical
means eg fractional distillation.
- See notes on
This means crude
oil can be separated by physical methods, in this case by fractional
distillation, because they have different boiling and condensation points.
At the bottom of the fractionating column the crude oil is heated to vapourise it
(evaporated or boiled) and the vapour passed into the fractionating
column – a large construction of many levels and pipes, see the 'simple'
- A fractionating column acts in the same
way as a distillation apparatus in the school/college laboratory but on
an industrial scale!
This is a continuous process (not a
batch process). The fractionating column works continuously with
heated–vapourised crude oil piped in at the bottom and the various
fractions condensed and constantly tapped off from various levels, each
with a different condensation temperature range.
Up the fractioning column the temperature
gradually decreases (temperature gradient), so the highest boiling
(least volatile) molecules tend to be at the bottom and the lowest
boiling (most volatile) hydrocarbons go to the top. The rest of the
hydrocarbon molecules then condense out in narrow temperature i.e. the
different fractions condense out in a gradual way from top to bottom
depending on their boiling point.
In other words the
most volatile fraction, i.e. the molecules with the lowest boiling points
(shortest hydrocarbon molecules),
boil or evaporate off first and go higher up the column and condense out at
the higher levels in the fractionating column at the lowest temperature.
The rest of the hydrocarbon molecules separate
out according to their boiling/condensation point so that the highest boiling fraction,
i.e. the less volatile molecules with higher boiling points
(longest hydrocarbon molecules), tend to condense
more easily lower down the column, albeit at the higher temperatures.
The process is perhaps more correctly called
fractional condensation but it is still referred to as fractional
The bigger the molecule, the greater the
intermolecular attractive forces between the molecules, so the higher the boiling
point or condensation point
(see physical property trends).
- This is an important rule to know since
the intermolecular forces (intermolecular bonding) affect the physical
properties including melting point and viscosity too, and this has a
bearing on how each fraction is used, see below.
Note: Covalent chemical bonds like C–C
or C–H are
not broken in the process, only the intermolecular force of attraction
is weakened to allow the initial evaporation or boiling and this .
THE FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
OF CRUDE OIL
fractions at the different
(% in crude
C atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule fraction
approximate boiling range in oC of
USES of the fraction which
mainly depends on its
Many fuels are hydrocarbons
A simplified diagram of a fractionating
column used in the fractional distillation of crude oil
The decrease and increase trends for
the hydrocarbon molecules are given on the left of fractionating column
Fuel Gas, LPG, Refinery Gas
1 to 4
mainly propane and butane gases
which can be compressed or liquified
fuel, C3–4 easily liquefied, portable energy source e.g. bottled gas for cooking
(butane), higher pressure cylinders (propane), feedstock for other organic
Gasoline – Petrol
5 to 8
25 to 75oC
easily vaporised, highly flammable, easily ignited, car fuel – petrol
6 to 10
75 to 190oC
no good as a fuel, but valuable raw material source of organic molecules to make
other things, cracked to make more petrol and alkenes
10 to 16
190 to 250oC
less volatile, less flammable than petrol, domestic heating fuel, (paraffin) aircraft jet fuel
Diesel oil, Gas oil
14 to 20
250 to 350oC
less volatile than petrol,
car and larger vehicle fuel (diesel), central heating fuel,
cracked to make more petrol and alkenes
RESIDUE – fuel oil, lubricating oils, waxes
20 to 70
AND over 70
high boiling liquids or low melting solids, all boil over 350oC
not so easily evaporated, not as flammable, safe to store, liquid fuel oil for
power stations and ships,
quite viscous (sticky) and can also be used for lubricating oils
(lubricants, 'mineral oils'), low
melting solids used as candle wax, clear
waxes and polishes (can be dyed)
bitumen/asphalt – low melting solid used on roads as it
forms a thick, black, tough and resistant adhesive surface on cooling, used as
a roofing waterproofing material (it sticks rock
chips on roofs or road surfaces)
2b. a mental picture of the
increasing length of hydrocarbon molecules will help you understand more about
how, and why, the physical properties of hydrocarbon molecules changes with
increasing length AND how their physical properties affect how each fraction is
used commercially after the fractional distillation of crude oil.
Note that the longer the hydrocarbon molecule,
the more flexible or wiggly it gets!
on relating the physical properties of the hydrocarbon fractions to
their uses and dangers
The different fractions
are a range of physical properties which
vary with molecular size. Down the list
above (and below) the
longer the carbon chain, the bigger the molecule gets ...
... the more viscous
the molecule (stickiness! less runny, more sticky)
as the intermolecular
attractive forces between molecules
increases the bigger the molecule
in a series of molecules of similar structure.
intermolecular forces are non–polar weak electrical attractive forces,
often described as Van der Waals forces, and correctly described
as instantaneous dipole – induced dipole
forces (by advanced level students only!).
... the molecule has a higher
melting point as more vibrational kinetic energy is
needed to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces holding the
molecules together to form the crystals increases with increase in
size of molecule.
... the molecule has
a higher boiling
point as more particle kinetic energy is
needed to overcome the increasing intermolecular forces between the liquid molecules.
3.follows from 2. ie the intermolecular forces increase between the
hydrocarbon molecules increases as they get bigger (longer carbon chain).
molecule is less
flammable as they become less volatile, again due to
increasing intermolecular forces with increasing size of molecule so for
example, petrol (small molecules) is much more flammable than lubricating oil
(much bigger molecules).
- Further comments on the use of
the fractions related to the use of the hydrocarbons from crude oil
- The examples are discussed in
order of increasing molecular size – increase in carbon chain
- All fuels are processed at
the oil refinery to reduce the concentration of sulfur/sulphur
- It should be noted that liquid
fuels like petrol, diesel, central heating oil etc. are east to
store and distribute to wherever they are need in homes or
factories and they are so readily available, that change may be
necessary, but it will be slow.
- See notes on pollution, global
- Methane natural gas, either
from gas fields (eg under North Sea) or from an oil refinery can be
piped to power electricity generation or domestic heating in the
The refinery gas fractions,
can be stored under
pressure as bottled gas, and because the gas readily flows
under the control of a simple valve, so can be conveniently pumped to burner systems, but
it is easily
ignited and explosive.
- Vehicle fuels like petrol must be liquid
at room temperature for
compact and convenient storage but they must be easily vapourised to
mix with air in the engine prior to ignition. The ease of
vaporisation does however make them flammable!
- Paraffin and kerosine are bigger molecules, less
flammable and safer, but not as easily ignited.
- Diesel is not as volatile or
flammable as petrol and doesn't have to be vapourised first, the
diesel fuel is sprayed into the engine cylinder and mixed with air
and ignites under compression.
- Fuel oil molecules are getting quite big, but not too viscous to pump
to a central heating burner for domestic use. Fuel oil is not very volatile
and so not as flammable and dangerous to use as petrol or diesel etc.
- Lubricating oil
must be quite viscous
to stick onto surfaces. Smaller molecules might be more runny but
they would evaporate away! It is also water repellent and helps
reduce corrosion on moving metal parts from factory machines to cars
- Candle wax
is very convenient as a
solid for a humble lamp (especially in power cuts!), but via a wick,
the heat from the flame is sufficient to vaporise the hydrocarbons
to burn them and give a big enough luminous yellow flame to act as a
source of light.
- Bitumen is a water repellent solid at
room temperature but is readily melted (sometimes too easily in hot
weather). Used as base for a road chipping top surface or sometimes
directly. It is also used to waterproof roofing felt.
- For more products derived from
crude oil other than fuels see ...
2c. Energy resource evaluation
– What makes a good
Factors that should
be taken into consideration – often factors overlap
kJ of heat energy released per kg;
Geographical convenience – is it imported?, fluctuations in oil production levels
and the market price
and safety issues e.g. coal very safe, natural gas (explosive
flammable gas) much more dangerous to store, but the gas is easy and
more convenient to distribute via pipes.
Costs of exploration and
extraction can be high for oil
Coal mines are dangerous
to operate, good health and safety policies don't come cheaply, and
its the same for operating oilfields and petrochemical complexes –
Costs of transporting
AND even after
considering all of these factors ...
and climate change:
Greenhouse effect – which
fuel produces the least or most carbon dioxide for the energy
The sulphur content of fuel (most removed before fuel used to minimise
sulphur dioxide and acid rain formation)
The efficiency of combustion e.g.
minimum carbon monoxide and soot levels.
Ease of use:
Transferred easily e.g. oil and gas readily piped around and readily
ignited for a quick start in power station. Coal is more trouble to
transport and does not ignite as easily.
also on OP04
Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry
3 linked easy Oil Products gap–fill quiz worksheets
ALSO gap–fill ('word–fill') exercises
originally written for ...
... AQA GCSE Science
Useful products from
crude oil AND
... OCR 21st C GCSE Science
Worksheet gap–fill C1.1c Air
pollutants etc ...
... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science
Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation
... each set are interlinked,
so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes
ALL my Advanced
Level Organic Chemistry revision notes
Notes information to help revise
KS4 Science Additional Science Triple Award Separate Sciences Chemistry revision
notes for GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry Revision–Information Study Notes for
revising AQA GCSE Science AQA GCSE Chemistry, Edexcel
GCSE Science, Edexcel GCSE Chemistry, OCR 21st Century Science Chemistry, OCR Gateway Science
GCSE science–chemistry CCEA/CEA GCSE science–chemistry
(and courses equal to US grades 8, 9, 10)
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