3o. The covalent bonding in the chloromethane molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
A further selection of dot & cross electronic Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in molecules, particularly simple organic molecules.
Only the outer valency electrons are shown for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine.
Can you deduce these electronic diagrams of covalently bonded molecules for yourself?
Ex. 10 nitrogen N2; Ex. 11 ethane C2H6; Ex. 12 chloromethane CH3Cl and Ex. 13 methanol CH3OH.
Electronic origin of the diagrams showing the outer electrons of N, C, Cl and O: N at. no. 7 (2.5), H at. no. (1), C at. no. 6 (2.4), Cl at. no. 17 (2.8.7) and O at. no. 8 (2.6) plus a variety of crosses and blobs!
The valencies or combining power in these examples are N 3, H 1, C 4, Cl 1 and O 2, so, these valency numbers correspond to the number of electrons the atom needs to give a stable outer shell - that's what valency is all about!
From these you can work out others e.g. Ex. 12 can be used to derive the ox diagram for tetrachloromethane CCl4.
Only the outer electrons are shown in the dot and cross diagrams below.
2D displayed formula and 3D impression of the displayed formula of chloromethane
3D ball and stick model of chloromethane CH3Cl
3D space-filling model of chloromethane CH3Cl
The full Lewis dot and cross diagram for the chloromethane molecule showing the inner shell electrons of carbon and chlorine
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