1b. The periodic table, electron configurations and type of chemical bonding formed between atoms
 

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE/IGCSE/O/IB/AS/A US grade 9-12 Level Revision Notes


Its a good idea to have some idea of where the elements are in the periodic table, and their electronic structure, before looking at the theoretical electronic models for ionic, covalent or metallic bonding

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1

1H  Note that H does not readily fit into any group

2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
Gp 1 Alkali Metals  Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals  Gp 7 Halogens  Gp 0 Noble Gases

Each page has bonding comments about selected elements highlighted in white

and the type of chemical bond an element forms with another element (or with itself)

 

In terms of the black zig–zag line:

(i) It 'roughly' divides the metals on the left from the non–metals on the right of the elements of the Periodic Table - some elements by the zig-zag line can have a mix of metallic and non-metallic properties - referred to as semimetals or metalloids e.g. Boron B, silicon Si, germanium Ge, arsenic As and antimony Sb.

(ii) Elements on the left form giant metallic lattices - metals - in alloy combinations the metal atoms bond in the same way as in the pure elements

(iii) Non-metallic elements on the right combine with each other with covalent bonds to form molecules.

(iv) When elements from the left and right combine, the bonding maybe covalent or ionic

BUT, when a group 1/2 metal with just 1/2 electrons in the outer shell,

combines with a group 6/7 non-metal with a nearly complete outer shell,

the result is usually an ionic compound (see the electron configurations below).

(c) doc b

The electronic structures of the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table from 1 to 2.8.8.2

(more advanced students need to know the s p d and f notation)

You need to know about these to understand the details of chemical bonding for an element whether it is covalent or metallic or if a compound has ionic or covalent bonding.

 


What next?

Recommend next: Why do atoms bond together? Why are some are reluctant to bond with other atoms?

 

Sub-index for: Part 1 Introduction to chemical bonding - why? how? and patterns

 

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

 

Perhaps of interest?

A broad survey of the Periodic Table

 

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