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KINETICS revision notes INDEX

Doc Brown's Chemistry A Level Revision

Notes on the rates of chemical reactions

GCSE/IGCSE Rates notes INDEX

Sections 1. to 4. are for both GCSE, IGCSE, O Level and Advanced A Level students (introduction for the latter)

Section 1.

Why is it important to know how fast reactions occur?

How can we measure the speed or rate of a chemical reaction?

Experimental methods are described in this introduction & subsequent sections

Section 2. Collision theory of chemical reaction rate factors A general introduction, then applied to sections 3a to 3e

Section 3. Factors affecting the speed/rate of a chemical reaction:

3a Effect on rate of changing reactant concentration in a solution/gas mixture

3b Effect on rate of changing pressure in reacting gases (gaseous equivalent of 3a)

3c Effect on rate of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant

3d Effect on rate of changing the temperature of reactants

3e Effect on rate of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction

Activation energy and reaction profiles

Enzymes - biological catalysts, optimum pH or temperature, use in biotechnology

3f Light initiated reactions - effect of changing intensity

Section 4. Examples of graphs of rate data, interpretation a summing up of ways your rate data can be analysed and interpreted at GCSE, IGCSE, O Level and basic ideas for A level chemistry.

Some ideas to help you with RISK ASSESSMENT when designing and performing 'Rates of Reaction' experiments and many other experimental procedures. Some aspects listed are applicable to 'rates/kinetics' assignments, others are not applicable at all. Its up to you to decide!


Extra pages for Advanced A Level Students ONLY (sections 1. - 4. are for all GCSE and A Level students etc.)

Section 5 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, types of catalytic mechanisms, data interpretation and rate expressions

5.1 The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular kinetic energies (related to temperature and catalyst rate factors)

5.2 Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis mechanisms

5.3 Obtaining rate data, interpreting data, deducing orders of reaction and rate expressions

Section 6 The Arrhenius equation, calculating activation energy,

6.1 The Arrhenius equation and calculating the activation energy Ea from kinetics–rates data

6.2 Kinetics versus thermodynamic stability and reaction feasibility

Section 7. Kinetic case studies

7.1 Hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes (see also nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion)

7.2 Catalysed oxidation of iodide ions by peroxodisulfate (see also transition metals - iron)

7.3 Enzyme kinetics (see also Enzymes - biological catalysts, optimum pH or temperature, use in biotechnology)

7.4 The H2/I2/HI equilibrium (see also chemical equilibrium)

7.5 Ester hydrolysis

7.6 Acid catalyzed iodination of propanone (see also organic mechanisms iodination of ketones)

7.7 Acid – thiosulfate reaction


Notes to add:

How knowledge and understanding of the factors that affect the rate of chemical reaction have changed methods of storage and cooking of food.
 


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An, INTRODUCTION to REACTION RATES, Why is it important to know how fast reactions occur?, How can we measure the speed or rate of a chemical reaction? Experimental methods are described in this introduction & subsequent sections, Collision theory of chemical reaction rate factors A general introduction Factors affecting the speed/rate of a chemical reaction: Effect on rate of changing reactant concentration in a solution/gas mixture, Effect on rate of changing pressure in reacting gases, Effect on rate of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant, Effect on rate of changing the temperature of reactants, Effect on rate of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction, Activation energy and reaction profiles, Enzymes - biological catalysts, optimum pH or temperature, use in biotechnology, Light initiated reactions - effect of changing intensity, Examples of graphs of rate data, interpretation a summing up of ways your rate data can be analysed and interpreted, suggestions and ideas to help you with RISK ASSESSMENT when designing and performing 'Rates of Reaction' experiments and many other experimental procedures. Some aspects listed are applicable to 'rates/kinetics' assignments, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular kinetic energies (related to temperature and catalyst rate factors), Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis mechanisms, Obtaining rate data, interpreting data, deducing orders of reaction and rate expressions, The Arrhenius equation, calculating activation energy, The Arrhenius equation and calculating the activation energy Ea from kinetics–rates data, Kinetics versus thermodynamic stability and reaction feasibility, Kinetic case studies, Hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes (see also nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion) 7.2 Catalysed oxidation of iodide ions by peroxodisulfate (see also transition metals - iron), Enzyme kinetics (see also Enzymes - biological catalysts, optimum pH or temperature, use in biotechnology), The H2/I2/HI equilibrium (see also chemical equilibrium), Ester hydrolysis, Acid catalyzed iodination of propanone (see also organic mechanisms iodination of ketones), Acid – thiosulfate reaction

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