Doc Brown's Revision KS3 Science
BIOLOGY Unit 9A Inheritance and selection
What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study
All of KS3 Science is now under review
and the quizzes will be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science
In this unit pupils learn:
• that characteristics are inherited and how this is used in selective breeding
• why selective breeding is important
• about variations arising from environmental differences
In scientific enquiry pupils:
• decide what measurements are needed
• collect, organise and use large data sets relating to variation
• look for patterns in data
• evaluate the strength of evidence
• investigate the effect of selective breeding on a plant variety, taking account of variables that cannot be controlled
When teaching this unit, teachers should make reference to their school’s sex education policy and PSHE scheme. Teachers will be aware of the need for sensitivity to the personal circumstances of individual pupils and their families.
This unit is expected to take approximately 7.5 hours.
The unit builds on ideas introduced in unit 7A ‘Cells’, unit 7B ‘Reproduction’ and in unit 7D ‘Variation and classification’. This unit provides opportunities to revisit and revise topics met in other units in years 7 and 8. With some pupils, teachers may wish to concentrate on some of the new topics, extending activities, and with others to spend more time on revision of previous work.
The unit is closely related to unit 9D ‘Plants for food’, which considers environmental influences on food production.
There are opportunities for citizenship, PSHE and sex education to be linked to this unit.
The historical impact of scientific discovery is covered in unit 20 ‘Twentieth-century medicine’ and unit 21 ‘Scientific discoveries’ in the history scheme of work.
This unit lays the foundation for work in key stage 4 on inheritance and genetics.
At the end of this unit
in terms of scientific enquiry
most pupils will: select and make effective use of secondary sources of information about inheritance and selective breeding; plan how to collect, store and use data about a large number of individuals; use ICT to produce graphs and draw conclusions from these; evaluate the strength of evidence in relation to sample size and variation within the sample
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: select information from secondary sources about inheritance and selective breeding; collect, store and use data about a large number of individuals; use ICT to produce graphs and identify patterns in these
some pupils will have progressed further and will: synthesise information about inheritance and selective breeding and identify limitations in the data assembled; decide whether the data collected about individuals is sufficient for firm conclusions
in terms of life processes and living things
most pupils will: identify some inherited characteristics and describe how some characteristics are influenced by environmental conditions; describe how sexual reproduction results in genetic information being inherited from both parents; identify characteristics in a plant or animal which are desirable in particular circumstances; outline how these characteristics might be passed on; suggest some of the issues to be considered in relation to selective breeding
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: identify some inherited characteristics and some influenced by environmental conditions; describe sexual reproduction as the joining of two cells; identify some characteristics of an animal or plant which are desirable in particular circumstances
some pupils will have progressed further and will: describe how selective breeding can result in offspring with particular characteristics; recognise that asexual reproduction produces clones
It is helpful if pupils know that:
• individuals of a species show characteristics which may be environmentally determined or inherited
• sexual reproduction involves the fusion of a male and female cell
Risk assessments are required for any hazardous activity.
Model risk assessments used by most employers for normal science activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teacher’s guide. Teachers need to follow these as indicated in the guidance notes for the activities, and consider what modifications are needed for individual classroom situations.
Through the activities in this unit pupils will be able to understand, use and spell correctly:
• words and phrases relating to inheritance, eg clone, gene, genetic information, gamete, genetically modified, selective breeding
• specialised words, eg clone, gene, gamete
• words with different meanings in scientific and everyday contexts, eg cell, variety
• words with similar but distinct meanings, eg variety, breed, species
• words and phrases relating to scientific enquiry, eg data set
Through the activities pupils could:
• appraise texts quickly and effectively for their usefulness
• write closely argued text where precise links and connections are made within sentences
• ask different sorts of questions to extend thinking and refine ideas
• pictures of large family groups from which inherited characteristics can be identified
• secondary sources giving information about variation, reproduction and selective breeding in animals and plants, including different varieties of plant
• graphics software for producing graphs illustrating variation in a sample
• CD-ROMs on plants, eg a gardening reference work
• software simulations or video clips showing gametes and fertilisation and how animal and plant cells pass on genetic information
• information leaflets about breeds of farm animal
• information about cloning and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) from environmental groups and farming and governmental organisations
• plant specimens, eg common fruits and vegetables, showing variation such as size, shape and colour
• wind- and insect-pollinated flowers and photomicrographs of pollen and ovules
• watch television programmes or read newspaper and magazine articles about cloning and cellular ‘surgery’ and the impact of GMOs on the environment, and evaluate whether such information is biased
• search the internet to explore issues relating to this topic
• visit farms, including urban farms, rare-breed centres or allotments to gain first-hand experience of the differences between particular breeds and varieties
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