BIOLOGY Unit 7B Reproduction
What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study
All of KS3 Science is now under review
and the quizzes will
be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science
Chemistry Q's *
Integrated Science Q's
In this unit pupils:
their earlier ideas about human reproduction and consider how offspring are
protected and nurtured
and compare reproductive patterns in other animals with those in humans
what they know of the way their bodies change during adolescence to knowledge
about human reproduction, growth and the menstrual cycle
In scientific enquiry pupils:
sample size in biological investigations
data in bar charts and graphs
data they have collected and data from secondary sources
Teachers should make reference to their
schools sex-education policy and personal, social and health education (PSHE)
programme. They will also be aware of the need for sensitivity to the personal
circumstances of pupils and their families.
This unit is expected to take approximately 8
This unit draws on ideas developed in the key
stage 2 programme of study. It builds on unit 5B Life cycles in the key stage
2 scheme of work and on unit 7A Cells.
This unit relates to:
At the end of this unit
in terms of scientific enquiry
most pupils will:
select information about reproduction from secondary sources; present and
interpret data about growth in bar charts and graphs, indicating whether
increasing the sample they used would have improved the work
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: with help, find information from selected
secondary sources and present data in tables and bar charts
some pupils will have progressed further and will:
explain whether the sample size in their
investigation of growth was sufficient for comparisons to be made with national
data and describe how reproduction was explained before the role of cells was
in terms of life processes and living things
most pupils will:
and name the main reproductive organs and describe their functions; describe
fertilisation as the fusion of two cell nuclei; describe egg and sperm cells;
explain how the foetus obtains the materials it needs for growth; describe
differences between the gestation periods and the independence of the young of
humans and other mammals and describe the menstrual cycle
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: identify and name the main reproductive
organs; describe fertilisation as the fusion of egg and sperm and identify the
importance of the placenta in supplying food for a developing foetus
some pupils will have progressed further and will:
explain how egg and sperm cells are
specialised, and describe how they carry the information for development of a
It is helpful if pupils:
describe the human life cycle in terms of infancy, childhood, adolescence,
maturity and ageing
that organisms are made of cells which have a nucleus and that cells are
adapted for their functions
Risk assessments are required for any hazardous
activity. Model risk assessments used by most employers for normal science
activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teachers guide. Teachers need to follow these as indicated in the
guidance notes for the activities, and consider what modifications are needed
for individual classroom situations.
Through the activities in this unit pupils will
be able to understand, use and spell correctly:
of reproductive organs,
eg ovary, testis,
eg menstruation, ovulation,
fertilisation, placenta, mammary glands, sperm, gestation
with similar but distinct meanings,
hereditary and inherited, baby and foetus, puberty and adolescence
with different meanings in scientific and everyday contexts, eg cell, fuse
relating to scientific enquiry,
reliability, sample size, national data
Through the activities pupils could:
notes, summaries, etc to clarify ideas and thinking which can be used later
and develop ideas and lines of thinking into continuous text
ideas within sentences including using links of time (then, later, meanwhile)
and cause (so, because, since)
with others to share information and ideas, and solve problems
questions using relevant evidence or reasons
sources: video clips, photographs about reproduction in animals, eg fish, frogs, where fertilisation is
clips, models, photographs, software simulations and ultrasound scans
illustrating the human reproductive organs, fertilisation, gestation, birth,
menstruation and the menstrual cycle
sources providing information about the effects of alcohol, tobacco and other
drugs, and rubella on the developing foetus
clips showing responses of a newborn baby and other animals, eg deer, birds, kittens, immediately
about egg production, gestation time, time to maturity, survival rates of
humans and other species
data, eg height/weight charts, showing
sources providing information about height/weight/growth of human offspring in
to ICT data-handling package
out about reproduction of, and breeding in, domestic pets
newspaper and magazine articles about cloning
out about life-support systems for premature babies and children with prenatal
out about social, ethical and technological issues when offspring are born as
the result of assisted conception, such as test-tube babies and fertility
out whether height and weight charts from doctors and slimming organisations
are the same or different
How does a new life start?
animals have different patterns of reproduction and development
to make notes, summaries, etc to clarify
ideas and thinking which can be used later
pupils with stimulus material, eg
pictures, video clips, to review their knowledge of reproduction in
animals. Ask pupils to find out about the reproduction and development of
certain animals, eg fish, frogs,
including information on fertilisation using texts, CD-ROMs and to make notes
or summaries of their ideas.
Discuss how eggs are fertilised externally
in some animals, eg fish, frogs,
using video clips as illustrations and pointing out the numbers of eggs
fertilised at one time. Ask pupils to suggest why this is.
state that a new life starts when a sperm
fertilises an egg
suggest reasons why large numbers of eggs, eg of fish and frogs, are fertilised
at one time
note key points about the reproduction of a
Extension: pupils could be asked to find
out about theories of reproduction, eg
the homunculus theory, held before cells were discovered.
animals have different patterns of reproduction and development
draw conclusions from patterns in data
that newborn human babies are more
dependent than offspring of some other species
pupils of the differences in the number of eggs produced by animals where
fertilisation is external and those where it is internal. Provide pupils with
stimulus material and secondary sources and ask them to identify patterns in
the number of eggs, internal and external fertilisation or development,
aftercare, growth pattern and chance of offspring surviving to maturity in
the species used.
Discuss the advantages of retaining the
young in the body and feeding the young on milk after birth, eg continuous access to nutrients,
protection from predators. Show pupils video clips of other mammals
offspring immediately after birth and ask them about their experience of
newly born pets. Establish that newborn humans are more dependent than some
other species. Help pupils to agree some broad generalisations from the data
state that mammalian young are fertilised
internally and develop in the uterus
explain that an advantage of internal
development over external is that there is a greater chance of developing
eggs surviving to become independent young
draw conclusions about mammalian
eg some mammals have
large numbers of offspring with a relatively small investment in aftercare,
others have fewer offspring with a high degree of aftercare
pupils could be encouraged to comment on advertising campaigns aimed at
getting parents to talk to their children, then to think about how parents
provide for childrens emotional as well as physical needs.
As an alternative, pupils could compare the
advantages and disadvantages of internal versus external fertilisation.
Pupils could follow this up with group discussion, before summarising their
own viewpoints in writing.
How does a new life start? (Cont.)
structure and function of the human male and female reproductive organs
fertilisation involves the fusion of the nuclei of sperm and egg
that the fertilised egg divides into 2, 4,
8, etc cells as it passes down the oviduct
models, video clips or other illustrations, help pupils to identify, name and
describe the functions of the mature human reproductive organs. Ask pupils to
annotate diagrams of male and female reproductive organs.
pupils of work on cells and establish that for fertilisation to occur, a male
cell (sperm) fuses with a female cell (egg). Establish that sperm are
produced in testes and eggs in ovaries. Talk with pupils about sperm being
deposited in the vagina and having to move to where the eggs are and eggs
being moved down the oviduct, illustrating, eg with video and software simulations. Explain fertilisation in
terms of the fusion of nuclei of sperm and egg.
Discuss with pupils, illustrating with, eg video clips, photographs, software
simulations, how the cells divide and increase in number. Ask pupils to
draw, or label, and sequence pictures or diagrams illustrating ovulation,
fertilisation, cell division and implantation.
name, locate and describe the functions of
the reproductive structures,
oviduct, uterus, vagina, penis, testis, sperm duct
describe fertilisation in terms of the
fusion of cells
sequence changes in sperm and eggs during
and after ovulation
provides an opportunity to discuss how infertility may arise, eg from low sperm counts, blocked oviducts
or infrequent ovulation, the technological solutions available and some
ethical and social issues that may arise.
Teachers may wish to point out that an
unfertilised egg will not survive more than three days, although sperm may
remain alive for longer.
that sperm and egg cells are specially
adapted for their functions
Show photographs or video clips of sperm
and egg cells. Ask pupils to compare them and suggest how they are specially
adapted for their functions. Ask pupils to draw and describe or annotate
drawings of egg and sperm cells, identifying their main features.
identify and describe how sperm cells are
adapted to their functions,
eg a tail
that pushes it along; streamlining, by reduction in size through having less
cytoplasm; a specially strengthened head that contains chemicals to penetrate
and break down the outer layers of the egg
identify and describe how egg cells are
adapted to their functions, eg an
enlarged cell with food reserves
work draws on unit 7A Cells.
Extension: discussion of the adaptations of
cells could be extended to the ciliated cells in the oviduct.
How does a new life start? (Cont.)
that male and female nuclei contain the
characteristics of male and female parents respectively
quick questions to check pupils recall of cell structure and making new
cells. Review fertilisation in terms of the fusion of nuclei and discuss how
this results in characteristics being passed from parents to offspring.
the pupils to speculate on how identical and non-identical twins occur, eg by providing them with statements
containing correct and incorrect explanations from which to select.
Establish with pupils that, whether
fertilisation is internal or external, it involves the fusing of male and
female nuclei and involves the combination of characteristics of both
explain that sperm and egg each contain half
the inherited information needed and relate this to the concept of identical
and non-identical twins
work provides opportunities for pupils to relate ideas about inheritance to
themselves. Teachers will be aware of the need to be sensitive to the
circumstances of individuals and of their families.
Detail about mitosis is not required at key
When can human fertilisation take place?
egg cells are released from the ovaries at regular (approximately monthly)
menstruation is a monthly cycle which stops during pregnancy
that the stages in the menstrual cycle are
controlled by hormones
pupils of the differences between external and internal fertilisation. Ask
them about the numbers of eggs and sperm in each case and to suggest reasons
for any differences. Find out what pupils know about human egg cells, eg where they are produced, how often they
are produced, and how a woman might know if she is pregnant or not. Using
pupils suggestions and video or CD-ROM simulation introduce the stages of
the monthly cycle.
the pupils to construct a diagram of the days in the cycle, marking when
menstruation and ovulation might occur and when the uterus lining is
thickening. Discuss with pupils the variation in cycle length and practise
calculating when a woman might ovulate and when her period is due. Explain
that the menstrual cycle also prepares the uterus for a fertilised egg and
identify the time in the cycle when fertilisation is most likely.
Establish that, on the whole, humans have
one offspring at a time and that the human reproductive system is designed to
try to make sure that the one offspring survives.
describe the changes of the menstrual cycle,
eg egg maturation, ovulation,
recognise egg production as a cyclic
make calculations, eg ovulation date and menstruation date, for a regular cycle
work provides an opportunity to discuss other changes related to menstruation
and to answer questions raised by both boys and girls.
this stage pupils do not need to know about oestrogen or progesterone
changes, or that egg development is stimulated by a hormone produced by the
brain and changes in the uterus are controlled by hormones produced by the
companies offer visits by health professionals to support girls in the early
years of puberty. They can also provide support for boys and mixed groups.
These activities provide an opportunity to
discuss with pupils the reasons for, and some outcomes of, multiple births.
How is the human foetus supported as it
the foetus develops within a membranous bag and is supported and cushioned by
that the placenta supplies nutrients and
oxygen to the foetus via the umbilical cord, and removes carbon dioxide and
other waste products
quick questions to establish pupils knowledge of pregnancy. Use photographs,
models, diagrams, video clips, CD-ROMs or ultrasound scans to look at the
changes in a developing foetus from implantation to birth and discuss the
sequence with pupils.
Identify the structures within the pregnant
uterus and explain the functions of the amnion and amniotic fluid. Discuss
with pupils the foetus need for nutrients and explain the role of the
placenta in materials exchange. Ask pupils to label a diagram and use arrows
to show movement of oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the foetus and
the movement of carbon dioxide and other waste products from the foetus to
identify the structures in a pregnant uterus
and explain the function of amniotic fluid, eg supporting the foetus, cushioning against shocks
describe the general route
taken by nutrients from the mothers digestive system to
the foetus brain
state that oxygen, water and digested food
pass from the mothers blood to the foetus blood and that carbon dioxide and
other waste products pass in the opposite direction
Several teaching schemes include
photocopiable templates for making models of the foetus in the uterus.
that harmful substances and viruses can
cross the placenta into the foetus and affect development
Challenge pupils to explain why, at one
time, teenage girls were offered the rubella vaccine, but boys were not.
Using secondary sources, discuss with pupils the passage of alcohol,
substances from cigarette smoke and drugs across the placenta. Ask pupils to
make a poster or leaflet to explain,
why vaccination against rubella is important, how smoking can affect a
include in their poster or leaflet
appropriate information about the effects of alcohol, smoking or drugs on a
developing babys growth
recognise that pregnant women should avoid
work provides an opportunity to undertake a risk assessment on the effects of
smoking on the unborn child.
Other effects of harmful substances are
covered in unit 9B Fit and healthy.
What do newborn babies need?
uterine muscle contracts during birth, expelling the foetus and placenta
through the vagina
that the baby is nourished by milk from
mammary glands, which provides nutrients and protects from infection
with pupils the processes of birth, using video, photographs and diagrams as
pupils how newborn babies obtain the nourishment they need. Describe the
composition of breast milk. Review with pupils their knowledge of the care
needed by babies.
Use video clips to show that a baby is
responsive to its world,
eg has reflex
actions when born, such as head turning when its cheek is touched.
explain the process of birth as cervix
muscles relaxing, uterus muscles contracting, and the foetus being pushed
out, usually head first, with the placenta expelled afterwards
describe how a newborn baby obtains the
nutrients it needs for growth
recognise that breast milk contains
protect against common
premature babies receive technological support in countries where such
facilities are available, eg use of
incubators and light treatment for jaundice, and pupils could investigate
what life-support systems are needed.
Extension: pupils could examine data on the
slight reduction in survival rate of both very small and very large babies
and speculate on the factors that can lead to these conditions, eg smoking linked with low birth weight.
summarise and make connections between key ideas in the unit
to plan and develop ideas and lines of
thinking into continuous text
Ask pupils to produce a short illustrated
account of the growth of a foetus and birth, which could be used with a
younger sibling when a new baby is about to arrive in the family. Ask them
for their ideas of the main points to include and how to organise the
produce an account identifying key points
and linking them in an appropriate sequence, using links of time and cause
A writing frame could profitably be used to
give structure to this activity.
How do humans change as they grow?
periods of rapid growth occur during the human life cycle
to decide what sort of graph is appropriate
quick oral questions to elicit pupils knowledge of the human life cycle, eg babyhood, childhood, adolescence,
puberty and adulthood.
Ask pupils to recall times when they grew
rapidly in primary school and identify the main ways in which they changed.
Use secondary data of height at different ages to plot growth charts and
identify the main periods of time when rapid growth takes place.
that rapid growth occurs at different times in the human life cycle and
identify when this happens on a growth graph
recognise that there is a wide variation in
the development of children
present data about height in an appropriate
chart or graph
pupils are sensitive about their weight. Sensitivity is needed with height
because a small but significant number of children have growth problems.
Height/weight charts used by health professionals illustrate the range of
expected heights and weights. These can be used to reassure pupils at the
extremes of the range.
Teachers will be aware of the need for
sensitivity to pupils who may mature earlier or later than the majority of
cell division and increased cell size lead to growth of the body
the importance of sample size in obtaining reliable evidence
decide on an appropriate graph to display data
to interpret class data and compare with
pupils of their work on cell division. Discuss growth and how pupils should
measure it, eg weight gain, height
changes, girth. Pupils explore the range of heights in the class and
present their data. Help pupils to think about how many individuals are
needed for measurement to ensure reliable information, what other factors
should be considered, eg boys/girls,
and how they will present their data.
Discuss with the pupils trends in the data.
Show charts and graphs to illustrate the range of expected heights and
weights at this age. Help pupils compare the ranges shown by the charts with
the data collected by the class and discuss reasons for similarities and
differences in terms of sample size.
that measurable changes in growth result from cell division and increased
suggest reasons for differences between
class and national data and explain in terms of sample size
focus is on collecting reliable information, but pupils may need support in
constructing appropriate graphs and bar charts. The activity offers an
opportunity to use ICT.
pupils could use secondary data, eg
evidence from great-grandmas height, Tudor beds, historical and literary
evidence of peoples diet, Saxon
burial sites, to compare growth of young people today with those in
historical times when many children were not well nourished. In medieval
times shortages in food supply contributed to smaller stature. However, many
dark-age burial sites show that men and women had similar stature to people
Extension: pupils could also explore
present-day variations in stature between countries and within the UK.
How do humans change as they grow? (Cont.)
changes in hormone concentrations result in the development of secondary
sexual characteristics and emotional changes at puberty
collaborate with others to share information and ideas, and solve problems
to answer questions using relevant evidence
how external adult features change during puberty, eg breasts, wider hips, facial and body hair, voice changes, stronger
body smell. Explain that circulating hormones cause the development of
secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive organs.
Challenge the pupils to provide evidence
about whether emotional maturation during adolescence proceeds at the same
rate as physical maturation in puberty, eg
by selecting or modifying personal problems from a teenage magazine or by
creating stories about secondary sexual characteristics or emotional
maturation. Ask pupils to discuss scenarios in groups and then produce
and present a reply to the rest of the class.
recognise that reproductive organs mature
during puberty as a consequence of growth and circulating hormones
describe the observable changes of puberty
in males and females, eg breasts, more
body hair, different body shape
provide examples of how physical and
emotional development proceed at different rates
share information and discuss ideas
about the range of different secondary sexual characteristics can alleviate
pupils concerns and sensitivities about their stage of development.
Extension: pupils could be given
information about research into boys and girls views about parenting and
discuss differences between the genders.
bring together information about a particular aspect of reproduction
to distinguish between the main ideas in
Provide pupils with a series of statements
about the human life cycle, the processes of fertilisation, embryo
development and birth, and about the specialisation of cells. Ask pupils to
sort the statements into groups and use them to make summaries of the ideas
encountered in the unit.
produce summaries which are appropriately
sequenced to show key ideas
distinguish between aspects of reproduction,
eg fertilisation and gestation
It may be appropriate to give some pupils
statements in one category first and then extend the work.